The history concerning an experimental verification of the standard model of particle physics is reviewed with special emphasis on results from experiments using the highest-energy particle colliders, namely, PETRA, LEP and LHC. This article covers physics subjects from discovering the gluon and precise measurements at LEP, to discovering the Higgs boson. It also covers some searches for physics beyond the standard model, particularly supersymmetry, as well as recent developments of some particle detectors that were used in those experiments.
Ultrashort visible-near infrared (NIR) pulse generation and its applications to ultrafast spectroscopy are discussed. Femtosecond pulses of around 800 nm from a Ti:sapphire laser are used as a pump of an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in a non-collinear configuration to generate ultrashort visible (500–780 nm) pulses and deep-ultraviolet (DUV, 259–282 nm) pulses. The visible-NIR pulses and DUV pulses were compressed to 3.9 fs and 10.4 fs, respectively, and used to elucidate various ultrafast dynamics in condensed matter with a sub-10 fs resolution by pump-probe measurements. We have also developed a 128-channel lock-in amplifier. The combined system of the world-shortest visible pulse from the OPA and the lock-in amplifier with the world-largest channel-number can clarify the sub-10 fs-dynamics in condensed matter. This system clarified structural changes in an excited state, reaction intermediate, and a transition state. This is possible even during molecular vibration and reactions via a real-time-resolved vibronic spectrum, which provides molecular structural change information. Also, ultrafast dynamics in exotic materials like carbon nanotubes, topological insulators, and novel solar battery systems have been clarified. Furthermore, the carrier-envelope phase in the ultrashort pulse has been controlled and measured.
Conventional cell-free protein synthesis systems had been the major platform to study the mechanism behind translating genetic information into proteins, as proven in the central dogma of molecular biology. Albeit being powerful research tools, most of the in vitro methods at the time failed to produce enough protein for practical use. Tremendous efforts were being made to overcome the limitations of in vitro translation systems, though mostly with limited success. While great knowledge was accumulated on the translation mechanism and ribosome structure, researchers rationalized that it may be impossible to fully reconstitute such a complex molecular process in a test tube. This review will examine how we have solved the difficulties holding back progress. Our newly developed cell-free protein synthesis system is based on wheat embryos and has many excellent characteristics, in addition to its high translation activity and robustness. Combined with other novel elementary technologies, we have established cell-free protein synthesis systems for practical use in research and applied sciences.