With the name “phenine” given to 1,3,5-trisubstituted benzene for a fundamental trigonal planar unit to weave nanometer-sized networks, a series of curved nanocarbon molecules have been designed and synthesized. Since the 6π-phenine units were amenable to modern biaryl coupling reactions mediated by transition metals, concise syntheses of >400π-nanocarbon molecules were readily achieved. In addition, the phenine design allowed for installing of heteroatoms and/or transition metals doped at specific positions of the large π-systems of the nanocarbon molecules. Fundamental tools were also developed to specify and describe the locations of defects/dopants, quantify pyramidalizations of trigonal panels and estimate molecular Gauss curvatures of the discrete surface. Unique features of phenine nanocarbons, such as stereoisomerism, entropy-driven molecular assembly and effects of dopants on electronic/magnetic characteristics, were revealed during the first half-decade of investigations.
The UHRF protein family consists of multidomain regulatory proteins that sense modification status of DNA and/or proteins and catalyze the ubiquitylation of target proteins. Through their functional domains, they interact with other molecules and serve as a hub for regulatory networks of several important biological processes, including maintenance of DNA methylation and DNA damage repair. The UHRF family is conserved in vertebrates and plants but is missing from fungi and many nonvertebrate animals. Mammals commonly have UHRF1 and UHRF2, but, despite their high structural similarity, the two paralogues appear to have distinct functions. Furthermore, UHRF1 and UHRF2 show different expression patterns and different outcomes in gene knockout experiments. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular function of the UHRF family in various biological pathways and discuss their roles in epigenetics, development, gametogenesis, and carcinogenesis, with a focus on the mammalian UHRF proteins.
Modern observation systems composed of seismic, geodetic, other geophysical, and geochemical networks developed in and around volcanic areas provide a mass of knowledge about volcanic activities. This paper summarizes the magma pathway and recent volcanic activity of the Asama volcano. The seismic velocity structure beneath the Asama volcano was investigated via seismic ambient noise tomography and active source seismic tomography. The magma pathway in the upper crust beneath the Asama volcano was synthesized by combining the velocity structure with a hypocenter distribution of volcanic earthquakes and ground deformations before and after eruptions. Temporal evolutions of multidiscipline data regarding the volcanic activity from October 2003 to January 2018 revealed that the supplied amount of magma from the magma chamber and the internal condition in the shallow regions of the conduit controlled the recent eruptions.
The establishment of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) in 1982 was an important event that greatly influenced the subsequent development of Japanese astronomy. The 45 m radio telescope and the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA) pushed Japanese radio astronomy to the forefront of the world. As a plan beyond the Nobeyama telescopes, the Japanese radio astronomy community considered a large array to achieve unprecedented resolution at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths under the project name of the Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (LMSA). After long and patient discussions and negotiations with the United States and Europe, the LMSA plan eventually led to the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) as an international joint project, and the ALMA was inaugurated in 2013. This paper reviews the process from the establishment of the NRO to the realization of the ALMA, including planning of the LMSA, international negotiations, site survey, instrumental developments, and initial science results.
Land plants have developed sophisticated systems to cope with severe stressful environmental conditions during evolution. Plants have complex molecular systems to respond and adapt to abiotic stress, including drought, cold, and heat stress. Since 1989, we have been working to understand the complex molecular mechanisms of plant responses to severe environmental stress conditions based on functional genomics approaches with Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant. We focused on the function of drought-inducible genes and the regulation of their stress-inducible transcription, perception and cellular signal transduction of stress signals to describe plant stress responses and adaptation at the molecular and cellular levels. We have identified key genes and factors in the regulation of complex responses and tolerance of plants in response to dehydration and temperature stresses. In this review article, we describe our 30-year experience in research and development based on functional genomics to understand sophisticated systems in plant response and adaptation to environmental stress conditions.