The present paper reviews recent activities on inverse analysis strategies in geotechnical engineering using Kalman filters, nonlinear Kalman filters, and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)/Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC) methods. Nonlinear Kalman filters with finite element method (FEM) broaden the choices of unknowns to be determined for not only parameters but also initial and/or boundary conditions, and the use of the posterior probability of the state variables can be widely applied to, for example, the decision making for design changes. The relevance of the unknowns and the observed values and the selection of the best sensor locations are some of the considerations made while using the Kalman filter FEM. This paper demonstrates several real-world geotechnical applications of the nonlinear Kalman filter and the MCMC with FEM. Future studies should focus on the following areas: attaining excellent performance for long-term forecasts using short-term observation and developing a viable method for selecting equations that describe physical phenomena and constitutive models.
Biomedical advances of external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with improvements in physical accuracy are reviewed. High-precision (±1 mm) three-dimensional radiotherapy (3DRT) can utilize respective therapeutic open doors in the tumor control probability curve and in the normal tissue complication probability curve instead of the one single therapeutic window in two-dimensional EBRT. High-precision 3DRT achieved higher tumor control and probable survival rates for patients with small peripheral lung and liver cancers. Four-dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT), which can reduce uncertainties in 3DRT due to organ motion by real-time (every 0.1–1 s) tumor-tracking and immediate (0.1–1 s) irradiation, have achieved reduced adverse effects for prostate and pancreatic tumors near the digestive tract and with similar or better tumor control. Particle beam therapy improved tumor control and probable survival for patients with large liver tumors. The clinical outcomes of locally advanced or multiple tumors located near serial-type organs can theoretically be improved further by integrating the 4DRT concept with particle beams.