This study describes method to determine risk due to landslide and applies Certainty Factor (CF) model to determine landslide susceptible area along the most important highway in Bhutan. The quantification of the risk in terms of total duration of road blockages was done based on the data collected from eleven years eight months period Kuensel (weekly newspaper of central government). The total traffic and passenger losses determined with freight and passenger transport value losses in terms of dollar values indicated that the road operation risk would have significant impact in terms of economic value for the country. The certainty factor model that used 149 cases of the existing landslide with its affecting parameters indicated that the landslide certainty factor increases with the increase of slope value above 30° for the slopes facing towards the south. The rainfall parameter showed the increase in certainty value from the rainfall intensity of 7.76 mm/day. The lithological and land use parameters used indicated the certainty of landslides in phyllite areas and barren area with grasses. Application of the certainty factor model along the most important highway in Bhutan could delineate the susceptible areas similar to the existing landslides.
Earthquake is a disaster which often forces engineers and common people to pay attention, particularly, when large-scale earthquake occurs in residential where many non-engineered houses are present. The resulting destruction often leaves further social and environmental problems. Many are left homeless, and a large volume of rubble must be scrupulously handled. This research concerns the relief action of an earthquake aftermath, in which the reconstruction program for the victims becomes the focus of the analysis. Some previous researches on earthquake reconnaissance are reviewed, a case study is taken from the reconstruction program of the Yogyakarta earthquake aftermath, and a pilot project of cast-in-place re-mortar wall was conducted and observed. Three methods of rubble handling related to reconstruction schemes; new bricks and re-bricks system (Scheme-I), re-bricks and re-mortar blocks system (Scheme-II), and re-bricks and cast-in-place re-mortar wall system (Scheme-III); were analyzed and discussed. It has been concluded that the application of rubble recycling could reduce wall construction cost up to 20%. Although the case study was taken from Indonesia, the result may be applied to other reconstruction programs in other regions, especially those with similar conditions and developments.
The practice of e-procurement as the government procurement system varies from one country to another. Depart from the common purposes such as efficiency, transparency, non-discrimination, and accountability, countries may run their procurement systems differently. Some countries may run their e-procurement system successfully with some notes in their practice, some may still face barriers, and others may only partly implement e-procurement. Trial and error may not be an effective method of learning, thus it is essential to learn from other countries' experience in running e-procurement. This paper presents a distinct practice of government e-procurement, namely e-Auctions, as used by the government of Thailand. The government of Thailand runs two types of e-Auctions: Reverse Auction and Sealed Bid auction, which result in lower prices due to the higher price competition. Contrary to the common practice of e-procurement, the Thai government, with some rationales, runs the bid documents obtaining manually as well as qualification and technical documents submission and holding the e-Auctions at bidding office. The advantages and disadvantages of Thai e-Auctions practice are presented in this paper as well as improvements that have to be made for successful of e-Auctions. The lessons learned from Thai e-Auctions practice is expected to be a constructive reference in establishing e-procurement system.
Major infrastructure development projects in developing countries have been financed from foreign assistance. International donors such as the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and Japan Bank for International Cooperation have been adopting the conditions of contract prepared by the FIDIC for the construction projects in aid recipient countries. Such international construction projects requires the contracting parties to have contract administration functions in order to achieve the project objectives such as time, cost and quality in a transparent way and ensure the project compliance. However, contract administration is a veryundeveloped area of project management in developing countries. On the other hand, Japanese public works use lump sum contract for construction, and bill of quantities and work program are not binding to the contracting parties. Contract administration in construction is not demanded. However, the occurrence of claim events are endemic in construction project and claim/dispute management system isnot as transparent as seen in international construction project. A training program on contract administration for international construction project have beendeveloped by Kochi University of Technology in association with Nippon Koei and in cooperation with Japan Bank for International Cooperation to strengthen contract administration in official development assistance project in developing countries and to make Japanese construction professionals familiar with international practice in construction contract administration. 5 trainings have been conducted so far in Japan, Thailand, Mongolia and Sri Lanka. The functions of contractadministration, training outputs and its prospect in developing countries and in Japanese construction industry are discussed.