This paper describes the quantitative analysis of landslide on mountainous region of Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan using the records of pervious landslide data along the road network. It determines the landslide susceptibility of an area using the Certainty Factor Model (CF) and uses SINMAP model to indicate Stability Index (SI) and susceptibility classes in GIS application. The affecting parameters such, as lithology, slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, land use and rainfall are derived and spatial database was established. The CF value that was used as GIS attributes to integrate the parameters by summation indicated it is certain that landslide will occur along sandstone and shale area with CF value of 0.38.The slope of 20°-30° had high certainty and slope facing northwest and west showed high certainty for landslide as area unexposed to sun have lower temperature and higher soil moisture which are favorable for landslide occurrence. The land use indicated higher certainity of landslides in barren land with grasses and the rain parameter indicated that certainity increases with an increase of rainfall intensity. The integration of the geomorphological parameters in SINMAP model along with the landslide data indicated the relation between contribution area and the slope. The failure slope range indicated by SINMAP model agreed with that of the CF model. The generated susceptibility class map showed similar trend while comparing with the actual landslide data of the area and also indicated the susceptibile area similar to that with CF model.
Nutrient's over-enrichment has resulted in major changes in the coastal system of Mikawa Bay. One important factor which affects eutrophication is decrease of the area of tide land, caused by the change of land use in coastal area. This study examines, by using an eutrophication model with benthic system, to what extent water quality in Mikawa Bay can be improved with the tideland. The benthic system consists of the five state variables of benthic alga, meiobenthos, suspension feeder, deposit feeder and bacteria. Obtained results are summarized as follows:(1) the model simulation acceptably well reproduced seasonal variations of the benthic variables in Mikawa Bay, (2) changes of water qualities by nutrient-reduction scenarios, with and without the benthic system, were analyzed and contribution of the benthic system to decrease of chlorophyll-a concentration was quantitatively evaluated, and (3) the tideland in Mikawa Bay was estimated to be worth, at its largest, 30% reduction of the T-N (total nitrogen) input caused by sediment resuspension.
An early diagenesis model was developed and utilized to compare the material cycling characteristics of the sediment in aspects of the oxygen consumption, carbon, nitrogen, manganese, iron and sulfate at two measurement sites, Tategami and Takonobori, in Ago Bay, Japan. The model is a one dimensional vertical transport. The biogeochemical reactions in the model consist of primary and secondary reactions. The primary reaction describes the organic matter degradation, and the secondary reaction describes the reaction of reduced species produced by the primary reaction. In general, the model could reproduce most of the vertical concentration profiles of materials observed at those two measurement sites. The supplied particulate organic matter to the sediment surface is 14.69 mmol C/m2/day for both sites. The result shows that oxic respiration and sulfate reduction are dominant at Tategami, while sulfate reduction is dominant at Takonobori. We also found that sediment at Takonobori consumed less oxygen than at Tategami due to the release of dissolved organic matter from the sediment, which is transported mostly by irrigation process.
Recent years, with rapid economic development, Chinese government could not meet the continually growing demand for services alone. It is estimated that in the 11th five-years (2006-2010), total 660 billion RMB are necessary for urban environmental infrastructures. Under such circumstance, Chinese government began to promote Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) model for allowing the private sector to participate in providing public services, which aims to attract private investment, improve efficiency of public services through market and competition mechanisms and create new jobs and new service industries, thereby promoting economic growth. SWOT analysis was implemented for countermeasures on promoting BOT model in UEI projects. A SWOT Matrix, in which the SO, ST, WO, WT strategic alternatives available indentified, was developed. The results shows, development of detailed and operational guidelines and a special law for promoting PPP, increase collection rate, rise of treatment and disposal fees and well planning for avoiding waste of investment and increase of utilizing rate of facilities etc. were considered as most important countermeasures for promoting BOT projects in China.