Rotaliatina is a genus of Foraminifera errected by Dr. J. A. CUSHMAN in 1925 on material from the Upper Eocene Alazan shale of Carrizo on the Rio Tamuin, San Louis Potosi, State of Mexico. Its genotype is R. mexicana CUSHMAN. Perhaps Rotalina buliminoides REUSS described by REUSS in 1851 from the Late Tertiary (Septarien Ton) of Hermsdorf near Berlin could be regarded as congeneric with the Mexican species, being very similar to it in the trochoid spiral of test and simple suture; the original description and figures are copied below for comparison:- “Testa elevata, pupiformi, superne dilatata, basi acuta, laevigata; spire elevata; aufractibus 3 manifestis; loculis 7 angustis, convexiusculis; facie superiore subumbilicata; aperture tenui, elongata. Altit. 0.35-0.45mm.”
A study of various collections of foraminifera now stored in the collection of the Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Tôhoku Imperial University, Sendai, Japan, has rendered possible the review of the Japanese species of Cassidulina, both fossil and recent. There are 12 species belonging to the genus Cassidulina in Japan; among them 4 species, namely, C. japonica n. sp., C. yabei n. sp., C. setanaensis n. sp., and C. sublimbata n. sp. are distributed only in northern Japan, both as recent and fossil, and are not known from the Pacific side of Japan. On the contrary, the other 8 species, namely, C. subglobosa BRADY, C. subglobosa parva n. subsp., C. subglobosa depressa n. subsp., C. sagamiensis n. sp., C. kadusaensis n. sp., C. orientale CUSHMAN, C. pacifica CUSHMAN and C. laevigata D'ORBIGNY (?), occur only in the recent or fossil materials from the Pacific side and not in those from the Japan Sea side. The distribution of these interesting forms are the subject of this article and descriptions of the new species or subspecies will appear in another article. The writers here propose the following two different provinces of the marine Neogene from the view point of distribution of Cassidulina. 1) Cassidulina province of the Japan Sea type:-This includes the Neogene formations in the prefectures of Aomori, Akita Niigata, Toyama, Isikawa and HokkaidÔ. 2) Cassidulina province of the Pacific type: This includes the Neogene formations of Bôsô and Miura Peninsulas, the Kakegawa District and Aki-gun in KOti prefecture. The former province seems to be closely related to the Neogene Oil-field of Japan and it is noteworthy that the allied species are commonly found in the Plio-Pleistocene of California.
The occurrence of a rich mammalian fauna in some of the limestone fissures and caves of Kuzuii in Aso-gun, Totigi-ken, came to the first time in 1930 to the notice of geologists ; since that time, the author repeated excavations of the ossuaries to the last year, with kind assistance of Mr. O. TANAKA, a resident in Kuzuii, to whom he is much obliged for facilitating the dangerous and difficult task of excavation and fossil collection. The laboratory work of fossils collected. is still in progress under the guidance of Prof. H. YABE in the Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, TOhoku Imperial University, Sendai, where all the materials obtained by excavation are deposited. The fissure deposits of Kuzuü, the “Kuzuü formation” of the author, is divisible into three parts, lower, middle and upper. The lower Kuzuü formation consists of two fossil beds, the lower, Sus bed and the upper, Stegodon bed; the upper Kuzuü has seven, Geoclemys-, amphibia-, Palaeoloxodon-, Parastegodon-, Microtus-Mels-, carnivora-and Moschus beds in ascending order; and the middle Kuzuü is barren of fossils. In the present article only the Geoclemys-, amphibia-, Micraus-Meles-, carnivora- and Moschus beds of the upper Kuzuü are taken into consideration. The fossil bones, teeth, antlers and shells procured by the author from Kuzuii during the pas six years amount to 4033 in number; they comprise 36 species of rnammalia, 5 species of ayes, 3 species of reptilia and 3 species of amphibia (anura), altogether representing more than 424 (or more) individuals in total. The actual number of samples and the estimated number of individuals (in parenthesis) of each species are given in Table 1; from this table one can get the general, though faint, idea of the numerical ratio of skeletal parts excavated of each species to the approximate individual numbers by estimation. In Table 2 are given only the estimated numbers of individuals of each species in order to show the relative population among the different species; perhaps this statistical method may serve for palaeoecological analyses of the fossils beds or consideration of the mechanism of the fossil entombment. In strict sense, of course, it is almost impossible to estimate the total number of specimens preserved in one ossuary, especially by intermittent excavaations in small scale as in the author's enterprise; yet his intention lies in knowing, if possible, the proportion in numerical value, though only in approximation, of the skeletal parts of different animals procured from each ossuary. The specific elements of the fossil fauna under consideration are divided into the following three categories according to their frequency or population. 1. Dominant cements, in which the finds of the skeletal parts correspond to 20 individuals or more, and are found in all or at least in the majority of different ossuaries. 2. Subordinate elements of A type in which the finds of the skeletal parts correspond to less than 20 and more than 5 individuals and are found at least in the majority of the different ossuaries. 3. Subordinate elements of B type in which the finds of the skeletal parts corresponi to less than 5 individuals and are found in only a limited number of the ossuaries. The dominant elements and subordinate ones of A type are listed in Table 3; most of them are fossorial in habit, and their skeletal parts are rather completely recovered. On the contrary, the subordinate elements of B type are known only of very few and fragmental remains. The Kuzuiü ossiferous fissures, so far as the 5 fossil beds are concerned, are more or less like the Conard fissures in Arkansas, United States of America, in the constitution of fauna.
The pioneer of the Cambrian trilobite research in Eastern Asia is DAMES who described 14 species through the study on the collections procured by Richthofen from three localities, Saimaki, Wing and Wulopu in Liaotung.
During the hunting of the Mammalian fossils in a limestone cave at Tuizi, Kuzuu-mati, TOKUNAGA, TAKAI and NAORA have collected a small lot of terrestrial snails and submitted them to me for determination. The snails are found associated with a molar tooth of Palaeoloxodon in a Pleistocene fissure filling deposit and hence there is the least possibility of mixing the recent snails with the fossils. Most of the specimens before hand are not well preserved. However, as illustrated in figs. 1 a-c on plate: 18 (7), some traces of colour patterns are still retained in a specimen of CyClophol us herklotsi.
The Specimen, a fragment of the right horizontal ramus of the mandible containing the first, second, and third molars, was dredged from the sea bottom Off the Island of Kotuti, Kagawa Prefecture in January 1933.It is now preserved at Waseda University, Tokyo. The mandible is broken at the anterior margin of the first molar, the ascending ramus and the inner and lower sides of the horizontal ramus being also damaged. Palaeopathologically speaking, a number of intresting features are observed in this specimen. First, a compound odontoma of the first and second molars has taken place, which is a benign tumor derived from an abnormal arrangement of dentine, enamel, and cementum and a sporadic calcification in tooth development. Second, a great hypertrophy of the right ramus has happened, which has given rise to a bulbous appearance to the jaw. Third, the concavity of the diseased molar is greater than that of a normal molar. Fourth, the breadth of the former is one-and-a-half times that of the normal. And fifth, the enamel figure on the friction surface of the anomalous molar is irregular as shown in the plate. The third molar, which now contains the anterior talon and twelve ridges, has lost 4-8 ridges and the posterior talon. Its grinding had not yet begun. The maximum length of its crown is 180mm., and its width at the sixth ridge 60mm. The height of the crown is 128mm. at the fifth ridge, and 132mm. at the tenth. The frequency of ridges in a standard length of 100mm. is 6.5. For reasons given above it is almost impossible to determine its specific name, but the writers believe that it may belong to Palaeoloxodon namadicus (FALCONER and CAUTLEY), the well known Pleistocene elephant. Finally the writers wish to express their thanks to Professor Tosikazu Tokoro, Nippon Dental College, for dental information received.