Is symmetry perceived holistically when the symmetry is structured both in terms of color allocation and location configuration of a block-pattern? In Experiment 1, eight college students performed two discrimination tasks. Stimulus patterns were presented tachistoscopically. In one task discrimination was made between symmetric and asymmetric patterns in terms of block locations. In the other task discriminaton was made between symmetric and asymmetric color configurations. In both tasks complexity was varied between two fixed levels. Though stimuli used in these two tasks were identical except for the experimental variables, it was found that both reaction time measures and the patterns of interaction effects between the complexity factor and the discrimination factor suggest dissociability between color and location. Experiment 2, an extended replication of the location task with ten subjects, provided subsidiary evidence supporting the findings above. These results indicate that the color and the location information in symmetry are not processed integrally and holistically.
This experiment tested the effect of direct goal-box placement (DP) on serial pattern learning performance which had been acquired by ordinary running training. In Phase 1, ordinary training was employed in which rats were required to run from the start-box to the goal-box, one basic group of rats received monotonic (M) pattern (14-7-3-1-0 food pellets) and the other received nonmonotonic (NM) pattern (14-1-3-7-0). Then, in Phase 2, the DP procedure was employed, each group of Phase 1 was divided into three subgroups, M(monotonic), R(random), or NR(nonreward), respectively. Each pattern of this phase was 2, 3, or 4 items in length. Finally, in Phase 3, rats were tested for their performance in runway. The procedure of this phase was identical with Phase 1 except that all rats received 14-7-3-1-0 pattern. The results of Phase 3 showed that DP was effective on the rats which received NM pattern in Phase 1, but it was of little effect on the rats which received M pattern in Phase 1. These findings indicate that DP, in the experimental paradigm of this study, is effective only when the learning tasks of Phase 1 and Phase 2 are not identical.
Two experiments were conducted to examine the enhancing effects of the conditined odor aversion (COA) treatment on the taste and odor NEOPHOBIA. In Experiments 1 and 2, prior COA treatments to orange odor mediated by LiCl (0.6M, 5ml/kg, i. p.) suppressed the lemon-odored water but did not suppress the consumption of citric acid solution (0.025M) (Figs. 1 and 2). Furthermore, a discrimination test between orange flavor (0.5%) and lemon flavor (0.5%) revealed that rats could discriminate these two flavors. This indicates that the prior COA treatments could enhance the odor NEOPHOBIA but not the taste NEOPHOBIA. These results suggest that the enhanced NEOPHOBIA may not be due to illness-induced sensitization nor stimulus familialization along novelty dimension.