Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of pattern structure upon the formation and transformation of spatial image. Mazes were presented on the CRT display controlled by a personal computer. Experiments consisted of Learning Phase and Test Phase. In Learning phase subjects explored a maze until they made no error in succession and they explored the rotated or symmetrically transformed maze pattern in Test Phase. In experiment 1, 11 undergraduate students participated as subjects and the factor of pattern structure (form of maze: factor of 'closure') was manipulated. Results in Learning phase implied that spatial image was more easily constructed for closed mazes than for non-closed ones. In Test phase it was more difficult to explore symmetrically transformed patterns (mirror images) than to explore rotated patterns. In experiment 2, both pattern structure (closure) and presentation of exploring cue were manipulated. Results implied that processing of pattern structure might be independent from that of frame of reference in processing spatial images. In experiment 3, the effect of disharmony of orientation in Test phase between visual information and motor action was examined. Effect of disharmony was recognized in visually transformed condition. Results of 3 experiments support the view that mental structure is used in the situation of spatio-temporal integration.
Two male students wore goggles continuously for 12 days which rotated the visual field of each eye 180°around the line of sight. The subjects were tested on reading and several actions. In the reading test, the subjects read aloud four types of transformed texts: normal (N), rotation (R), inversion (I), and mirror image (M). The reading speed in R became faster as test sessions were repeated, but the tendency did not differ from that of control subjects who wore the goggle only in test sessions. In N, the reading speed in the vertical-writing condition was significantly slowed down, but the control group showed no such tendency. As action tests, the subjects performed three tasks: tracing a maze with a pen, walking along a path with turns, and pointing targets with a stick. The tracing and the walking speeds increased but did not differ from those of the control group. Veridicality in pointing was improved, although the control group showed no progress. It is proposed that reading process can be devided into two processes, i.e., perceptual-motor coordination and higher order cognitive processes, and argued that the adaptation process to the rotated visual field primalily affects the perceptual-motor processes in reading.
Fillmore (1968)'s case grammar suggested that verbs should be classified according to the logical structures of their case frame and the semantic constraints of each case relation in the case frame. An original binary tree model based on case grammar was designed to explain the memory structure of verbs in semantic memory. Two experiments were carried out to examine the prediction derived from the model, i.e. whether the case frame and the semantic constraints of each case relation that were determined by processing preceded noun phrases serve as cues for retrieving verbs from semantic memory. In both experiments, subjects were required to classify letter strings as words or nonwords under the following conditions: (a) when the target was preceded by a string of two noun phrases (the noun phrase was "a noun+a post-particle"; the post-particle is Japanese equivalent of a surface case marker) (b) when the target was preceded by a string of eight blank circles. Target words were verbs or nonsense syllables. Results showed the presentation of the string of noun phrases facilitated the classification of the appropriate verbs whereas it interfered with the classification of inappropriate verbs. These results were consistent with the prediction.
The measurement of visual acuity are ordinarily carried out by Landort's ring or Snellen type with Latin letters. These measurements fail to find out a large amount of information relating to visual function. On the other hand, the measurement by grating is able to detect those information, because it is well known that contrast sensitivity function provide most detailed information about the visual function. Amblyopic persons have some difficulties caused by their visual dysfunction specific to each person. In order to find these function, recently, it has frequently used grating for the mesurement of visual acuity. Another important aspect of visual acuity is that it is a measure of the finest detail that an individual can discriminate in the visual environment and act with the adaptable behaviour in it. The behavioural assessment is a kind of method about the mesurement of visual acuity. Although a preferential looking method is one of this style, visual acuity dose not only take a role as a mere procedure of diagnosis on the amblyopia, but it should more intensely take a consideration in relation of visual acuity for behavioural assessment.
Four illusion figures (a parallelogram with a minor diagonal, one with a major diagonal, an out-going Muller-Lyer figure, and an in-going one) were displayed on a TV monitor (a reading magnifier apparatus for the weak-sighted). Seven subjects with a central visual field loss (i.e. the experimental group) and four subjects with a normal visual field (i.e. the control group) observed these illusion figures. The experimental and control groups overestimated the minor diagonal of the parallegogram and the shaft of the out-going Muller-Lyer figure, and underestimated the major diagonal of the parallelogram and the shaft of the in-going Muller-Lyer figure. The difference between the experimental and the control group in the illusion magnitude was not found. We concluded that illusion also occurs with respect to the peripheral vision of the subjects with a central visual field loss and that such illusion does not differ from that of normal vision.