基礎心理学研究
Online ISSN : 2188-7977
Print ISSN : 0287-7651
ISSN-L : 0287-7651
15 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1997 年 15 巻 2 号 p. Cover3-
    発行日: 1997/03/31
    公開日: 2016/11/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1997 年 15 巻 2 号 p. Cover5-
    発行日: 1997/03/31
    公開日: 2016/11/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 須佐見 憲史
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 69-76
    発行日: 1997/03/31
    公開日: 2016/11/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    We examined the effects of relative motion components of a stimulus changing size on the aftereffect of motion-in-depth. In experiment 1, we used four moving lines forming a square. In one condition, two pairs of opposing lines moved simultaneously outward or inward (similarity). Whereas, in the other condition, one pair moved outward while the other pair moved inward and vice versa (shear). After adapting to these stimuli, two stationary vertical lines were presented. In the "similarity" condition, the stationary lines were first perceived to be moving in the opposite direction to the moving stimuli, and subsequently perceived to be moving in depth (3D-MAE). In the "shear" condition, however, the 3D-MAE was not induced. In experiment 2, we used two moving lines taken from the upper corner of the stimuli in experiment 1. After adaptation, two right angled lines were presented. Consequently the 3D-MAE was induced in the "similarity" condition, but not in the "shear" condition. These results suggest that our visual system integrates the relative motion components of changing size images for the perception or motion-in-depth.
  • Jun'ichiro KAWAHARA, Tamotsu TOSHIMA
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 77-87
    発行日: 1997/03/31
    公開日: 2016/11/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Previous research (Kawahara, 1996) suggest that visual attention is directed to the most salient stimulus in the visual field irrespective of the subjects' knowledge or intention (attentional capture). In the present study, we conducted two visual search experiments and confirmed the idea that visual attention is directed in the stimulus-driven way. Subjects searched for a target which was defined by motion. In one condition, the target was presented among static nontargets; in another condition, one of the nontarget was replaced with a task-irrelevant distractor which had a unique color. Experiment 1 showed that the presence of the distractor prolonged the reaction time for target identification even when the target can be detected independent of the total number of items in the stimulus display (display size). Decreasing the saliency of the distractor color diminished attentional capture (Experiment 2). These results are consistent with the notion of stimulus-driven way of attentional deployment. A further analysis and experiment were conducted to characterize the nature of attentional capture. The distance and the compatibility of features between the target and distractor were not significant determinant of attentional capture in the present study. Finally, a possibility and problem for proposing the single activation map model of attentional deployment was discussed.
  • 望月 登志子
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 89-101
    発行日: 1997/03/31
    公開日: 2016/11/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    鏡映像の位置を鏡面上に定位し,何の像であるかを織別する活動に関して,開眼少女MOが観察と実験場面で示した結果は次のように要約することができる.(1)自己の鏡映像に初めて対面したときのMOは,鏡そのものを漠然と見るだけこ留まり,映像の位置を定位することもできず,それを自分の映像として認識することは一層困難であった.(2)映像の位置を何とか定位できるようになった段階で,当初対象を探索した場所は鏡の表面乃至は背後の空間であり.鏡と対面する側の手前の空間に対象を探索し始めたのは後の段階であった.(3)映像を鏡の表面上に定位できるようになっても,最初はその映像の対象を自己の動きを模倣する他者であると(実在化して)捉えていた.しかし,触っても鏡面上に対象を捉えることができないことを知ったMOは,鏡の背後にそれを視・触覚的に探索することを始めた.だが,そこにも実対象を捉えることができないことを知ると,恐怖の念を示しつつも鏡の映像機能に気づき始め,それは鏡が映し出した映像であることを徐々に認めるようになった.(4)ただし,映像を見てそれが誰であるかを識別することはまだ困難であった.2年余りの間に断続的に行なわれた実験的試行を経て,自己の映像であることの認識は発生しており,他者像に比べて自己像の認識の方が若干容易である可能性が窺える.ただし自己像については,洋服の色と身体の動きとを容易に照合できることが判断を有利にしている可能性がある.とは言え,顔の形態的特徴に基づいてひとの認識がなされているわけではなく,他者の識別には,背の高さや髪の毛の長さも手がかりとして援用された.(5)MOは,鏡に映る動く対象を最初はすべて「人」として捉えていたが,「人」に限らず,鏡に対面している「事物」や「風景」なども映るという鏡の「映像機能」を理解するに至ったのは後の段階においてであった.その意味では,初期の知覚過程にとって鏡映像の認知が難しいのは必ずしも「人」を対象にした為ではないことを示唆するものである.鏡の映像機能を理解するまでには,自分が手に持っている事物もその鏡と対面する側面が映し出されるという事実や,自分の背後にあることをすでに知っている樹木やカーテンも自分とともに映っている,という現象にMOは気づいている.実験場面で得たこのような体験は,映像の実在化を否定して対象と映像を分離して捉え,映像と対象の空間的位置関係を了解することに一つの転機をもたらした.しかし,鏡映像と対象では,前後,左右関係が逆になることに気づき始めたのはさらに後の段階であった.(6)現在でほ,鏡の反射機能及び実像と映像の空間関係についてMOはある程度の理解を得たと考えられるが,鏡をモニターとして道具的に使用するまでには未だ至っていない.
  • 浜口 恵治
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 103-108
    発行日: 1997/03/31
    公開日: 2016/11/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The anisotropy of angle illusion is already established. If the Muller-Lyer illusion is caused by angle illusion, it should be possible to observe the anisotropy of the Muller-Lyer illusion. The apparent length of the shaft lines of the Muller-Lyer figures (obliques-in, H-shape, and obliques-out figures) and the control figure, were estimated by twenty-two university students, when the orientation of each figure was varied in eight steps: 0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5°, 90°, 112.5°, 135°, 157.5° counterclockwise from the horizontal. The anisotropy of the apparent length of the shaft line of each figure was observed, and these regression curves became quadratic functions. But the anisotropy of the Muller-Lyer illusion was not observed. It was concluded that the relationship between angle illusion theory and the Muller-Lyer illusion was doubtful.
  • 岡ノ谷 一夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 109-115
    発行日: 1997/03/31
    公開日: 2016/11/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Songbirds learn their song through imitation. Acute auditory perception is required throughout this process. Except for hearing range that is much narrower in birds than in humans, basic hearing abilities in birds and humans are very similar. However, when complex sounds are used, bird and human perceptions are quite different. In this report I compared perception of temporal and spectral factors in humans and birds. I first used operant conditioning techniques to measure discrimination performances on species-specific songs that were played normally and played in reverse order. Birds were more sensitive to the local cues (i.e., direction of frequency modulation) than to the global cues (i.e., the order of the syllables). I also tested whether birds could perceive missing fundamental when spectrally complex sounds were used. Birds not only attended to the missing fundamentals, but also to the average spectra of the stimulus complex.
  • 柏野 牧夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 116-122
    発行日: 1997/03/31
    公開日: 2016/11/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper describes two types of auditory aftereffects concerning sound localization. The first type involves the shifts in apparent location of a test sound with a given interaural time difference (ITD) following presentation of an adapting sound having a different ITD. The second type involves changes in ITD discrimination thresholds following adaptation. The aftereffects can be simulated by the interaural cross-correlation model with gain control. These results are consistent with the idea that the gain of ITD-selective units, located after binaural interaction but before across-frequency integration, changes according to recent input.
  • 積山 薫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 122-127
    発行日: 1997/03/31
    公開日: 2016/11/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The McGurk effect (McGurk & MacDonald, 1976) is an audiovisual illusion which demonstrates that visual articulatory information is integrated with auditory information during speech perception. This paper describes what kind of cues visible speech conveys and how visual information is integrated with auditory information depending on one's native language (or culture) and proficiency of a second language. In lipreading, Japanese subjects could categorize visual consonants into labials and nonlabials with accuracy equivalent to American subjects reported in the literature. Compared with native speakers of American English, native speakers of Japanese and Chinese were less susceptible to the McGurk effect, indicating a manner of processing of heavy weighting on auditory information. Examining the data of the Chinese subjects who were residing in Japan, the McGurk effect got stronger as the subjects lived in Japan longer, suggesting that acquisition of a second language promotes the use of visual cues.
  • 中島 定彦
    原稿種別: 本文
    1997 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 129-130
    発行日: 1997/03/31
    公開日: 2016/11/16
    ジャーナル フリー
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