The present study examined the relationships among personality traits, physical characteristics, and occupational categories derived from listening to human voices. Stimuli were 26 tape-recorded male vocal samples. In Study 1, 47 undergraduate and/or graduate students rated each of these stimuli on 22 personality traits and 11 vocal characteristics. Participants were also given a list of 34 occupational categories from which to select the most adequate occupational category for each of the 26 voices. In Study 2, ninety junior college students rated the vocal samples using the twenty occupational categories which had been most often selected in Study 1. Factor analyses produced three factors each for personality characteristics, for vocal characteristics, and for occupational categories. Also, significant correlations among those factors indicated that participants consistently attributed particular personality and vocal characteristics to specific voices and assigned those voices to particular occupational categories. Stereotypical perception of voices is discussed in terms of earwitness identification.
In this study, we examined effects of 3D cues (texture, contour and shading) on detection of a symmetry pattern in a 3D curved surface. In the experiment, we used dot patterns drawn on a front surface of a transparent cylinder and performed discrimination tasks between symmetry and random patterns. We manipulated the orientation of cylinder axes and symmetry axes. As a result, we obtained high performance regardless the orientation of cylinder axes and symmetry axes when the three 3D cues were given simultaneously or those orientations were matched. Furthermore, it was shown that shading was the most effective cue. This suggested that the detection mechanism of a symmetry pattern in 3D space involves percept of a global surface where the pattern is drawn.
The patterns of the mood-congruent memory and the mood-congruent judgment effect in automatic and controlled processing were investigated. In this experiment, participants were induced with music into either of positive, negative, or neutral mood states. They were sequentially presented with single words from a list of pleasant and unpleasant trait adjectives. They were then required to judge whether each word described themselves with or without the memory-load. After the task, they were given an incidental free recall test for five minutes. These results indicated that the mood-congruent memory effect was obtained only without memory-load (in controlled processing) in both positive and negative moods. In contrast, the mood-congruent judgment effect was obtained in neither of conditions. It is suggested that elaborative processing contributed to the self-referent encoding and that different processes of selective elaboration operated to produce the memory and judgment effects.
In the previous study (Nagai, Yokosawa, & Takano, 2000), we found that negative priming did not occur when distractor characters were rotated (180°), regardless of whether target characters were rotated or not. In the present study, we investigated whether the rotated distractors would produce interference in order to examine the relation between distractor interference and negative priming. As a result, the interference by rotated distractors was not observed when the targets were upright (Experiment 1), whereas it was observed when the targets were also rotated (Experiment 2). We discussed the reason why the interference depended upon the targets' orientation and its relation to negative priming in our previous study.
Several studies have found that gaze perception causes reflexive visuospatial orienting. To investigate which aspects of facial properties are crucial to this effect, upright, inverted and eye negated computerized faces, whose eyes cued to either the left or the right direction, were presented as cueing stimuli. The task was speeded localization of the target which appears left or right to the face. Though participants were told to ignore the eye direction, responses to the target located to the cued side were faster than the uncued side in all conditions. Thus neither face orientation nor contrast polarity of eyes was found necessary to the cueing effect of eye gaze.
We investigated the mechanism of shape processing of unattended objects, on the assumption that features are analyzed independently, and that these features are bound together on a conjunction map. Participants identified a letter in a probe following primed characters. On the prime, an endogenous cue determined attended and unattended characters. These characters were defined by the same or different feature dimensions. Results showed that unattended characters were processed only when they had the same feature as the attended character. The result suggested that spreading activation on each feature map causes failure of selection of objects, and spatial attention works on the conjunction map to select a cued object.
We examined the relation between shift of visual attention in depth and depth perception using cost-benefit paradigm (Posner, Nissen, & Ogden, 1978; Posner, Snyder, & Davidson, 1980) which controls expectancy. The major results are the followings: (1) depth perception depends on whether observers expected the position of targets or not and on the validity of expectancy and (2) when attention should shift from near to far, depth perception was more adequate than the reverse. These await for further research.
Right-handed participants performed the categorical and coordinate spatial relation judgements on stimuli presented to either the left visual field-right hemisphere (LVF-RH) or the right visual field-left hemisphere (RVF-LH). When the stimuli were bright, a RVF-LH advantage was observed for the categorical task, whereas a LVF-RH advantage was observed for the coordinate task. When the stimuli were contrast-balanced, the RVF-LH advantage was observed for the categorical task, but the LVF-RH advantage was eliminated for the coordinate task. Because the contrast-balancing essentially removes the low spatial frequency information, these results suggest that processing of low spatial frequency are responsible for the right hemisphere advantage for the coordinate spatial processing.
We measured increment threshold of orientation contrast in the texture pattern at various pedestal orientation contrasts to estimate the orientation-contrast response function. We found that the response to a sharp orientation contrast, which produces a vivid percept of surface boundaries, saturated at approximately 30°. However, no response saturation was found for textures that did not produce vivid percept of surface boundaries. These suggest that the orientation-based texture segregation involves not only the detection of orientation modulation, but also the generation of a neural representation of surface boundary whose strength is almost completely independent of the supra-threshold changes in the magnitude of orientation contrast.
The figure-ground articulation in three-dimensional space, which is a concept adopted in the space design, was psychologically examined. We defined the figural space as the inside and the ground space as its surrounding. The subject peeped into the box through a window and judged the insideness/outsideness of the space and the belonging of the wall in front. As results, the subjects felt the outsideness when they saw the wall considerably projecting out to them. A further examination revealed that the continuity, in color as well as in shape, of walls in the room was also important. Some differences between the classical articulation and this phenomenon were shown.
This study reports a case of patient who showed a double dissociation between phonograms (kana) and ideograms (kanji) in Japanese. First, we examined her reading ability of single phonograms and single ideograms. Secondly, we evaluated her reading ability of single familiar words and non-words consisted of three phonograms. The prominent aspects of the patient's reading were as follows; 1) reading of single ideograms were intact, while reading of single phonograms were impaired, 2) reading of some familiar phonogramic words were successful, while misreading of familiar words and non-words were founded. Those findings were discussed in terms of a function of basal ganglia and reading model.
This study investigated the relationship between phonological and semantic processing of working memory during text comprehension. A dual-task method was used; the primary task was listening comprehension and the secondary ones were both of a phonological-judgment task and a semantic-judgment one. In each secondary task, two conditions were set; the large task demand condition and the small one. It was shown that listening comprehension was influenced by the semantic-judgment task in the large condition. However, in the small condition, influences by two secondary tasks were the same. Additionally, in the semantic-judgment task with large task demand condition, errors of complicated questions were increased.
Pigeons could earn a smaller-sooner reinforcer provided by a fixed-ratio one schedule (an SS alternative) or a larger-later reinforcer provided by a 10-s temporal schedule (an LL alternative), which was either a response-dependent, response-independent, or pausing-dependent schedule in separate conditions. The SS alternative was presented after certain duration of delay, which varied daily, had passed from the onset of the LL alternative. Results showed that the later the SS alternative was presented, the less frequently the pigeons chose it. Although the different schedules of the LL alternative maintained differential responding, the responding itself had little effect on choice.
According to illustrators, unnoticed image distortions are detected easily by mirroring the images. This study investigated the effect of mirroring claimed by illustrators. Subjects were presented distorted face images in which one of the eyes was displaced vertically, and judged which of the eyes was higher. Psychometric functions of the judgments of the eye position difference were obtained for the normal and the mirror images. The results did not support the illustrators' claim, since the gradients of the psychometric functions which indicate the sensitivity to image distortion were not different between the normal and the mirror images.
It is reported that the structure-from-motion perception was influenced by the contour configuration: the contour attributed to the moving-element edge modified/increased the perceived depth, but that attributed to the outside frame as occluders had no effect. Thus, I focused on the effect of the adjacent occluder. The subject rated perceived depth from the random-dot motion simulating a cylinder with/without adjacent occluders. I manipulated the depth curvature and the binocular disparity of the occluders. The perceived depth decreased when the occluders were on accretion/deletion sides of dots comparatively with the condition without occluders. However, there was little difference between disparity conditions. Thus, the depth-order validity defined by binocular disparity was less effective than that by pictorial information.
We examined search performances for a target defined by motion that linked with observers' head movements to provide depth information by motion parallax. Observers, while having their head fix or move, searched for a moving or stationary target among stationary or moving distractors, respectively. The search for the moving target was more efficient compared with that for the stationary one regardless of whether observers' head was fixed or moving. Furthermore, a display size effect was smaller when the head was moving than when it was fixed. These results suggest that motion yoked to observers' movements is searched as depth feature.
In order to confirm that monkeys perceive surface orientation from pictorial cues of depth such as texture gradient in the same way as do humans, a monkey was trained to cross-match the orientation of a surface defined by the texture gradient and that of a surface defined by the disparity gradient. A transfer of learning was seen from the previous learning with 4 orientations to the new learning with another 4 orientations, suggesting that the monkey perceived surface orientation from the texture gradient.
A lot of environmental problems have long since developed into global problems. The solution to these problems only appears to be possible, however, if a global consensus is found. This is true for global warming and air, water and soil pollution. For various reasons it is also true for regional noise. After achieving a global consensus, regional activities are more meaningful. As most environmental problems are caused by human behaviour, it is the task of the environmental psychologists to establish whether there is such a thing as a common transnational code of standards and values, from which principles for dealing with the environment can be derived. Postmodern interpretations of the world and its order are also dependent upon such orientation
Effects of some factors on relation between visual search and internal representation were examined in real behavioral situations: knowledge in Bonsai appreciation, way of concern in an assembly task, skill in piano playing from a viewpoint of perceptual-motor coordination and useful field of view, and, demands in automobile driving from a viewpoint of useful field of view. Skill and knowledge are prerequisites for formation of efficient and appropriate representation. This was demonstrated through scan-path, span of preview, useful field of view, and temporal stability of perceptual-motor coordination. Furthermore, establishment of procedure of behavior was suggested to be significant for formation of representation. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that useful field of view becomes narrower under demanding situations because of limitation of attention resource.
Based on the model of auditory-brain functioning, first of all, temporal and spatial acoustic factors are described. First of all, primary sensations in relation to these factors in which a duration sensation is introduced in addition to loudness, pitch, and timbre, are described. Then, the theory of subjective preference of listeners as well as of musician is described. From the results of subjective preference of both listeners and musicians, for example, we may obtain a knowledge selecting suitable music programs to be performed in a given concert hall and the best location to perform music on the stage. Musicians perceive the importance of reflection in music performance adjusting the height of canopy above the stage, blending performer and hall sound. Also, a diagnostic system is proposed for testing physical properties and calculating psychological attributes at each seat after construction of halls toward meaningful control of sound fields. Such the preference theory incorporating temporal and spatial values may be applied for visual environments.