The present study was designed to examine the effects of relative precedence of choices and clearness of exposure on recognition judgment. Following the phenomenal characteristics reported by subjects, new experimental paradigms were introduced: Instead of meaningful words, nonsense, irregular shapes were used as stimuli in the forced-choice test, which required subjects to make recognition judgment directly without any stage of reading each stimulus. A total of 88 subjects participated. The forced-choice test with four choices demonstrated that recognition was facilitated by relative precedence, but not by image clearness. Furthermore, the effect of clearness on recognition was reexamined under the conditions where the influence of precedence was excluded (Exp.2), all choice-stimulus had low familiarity (i.e., NEW stimulus) (Exp.3), and image blurring (Exp.4). It was found, however, that clear exposure again had no significant effect on recognition judgment.
This study investigated whether our sensitivity to spatial frequencies of three-dimensional objects will vary according to task demand. Our experimental design followed that of Newell (1998) and added a variable spatial frequency. Newell (1998) reported that view dependence was observed when similarity between objects was high and memory set size was large. Experiment 1 showed that high similarity and large memory set size reduced sensitivity to low spatial frequency (LSF), while Experiment2 showed that only large memory set size caused view dependent strategy to process LSF. These results suggest that similarity and memory set size affect the variation of sensitivity to spatial frequency with large memory set size reducing sensitivity to LSF.
When subjects study a list of related words, all of which are associates of a critical nonpresented word, they sometimes erroneously recall the critical nonpresented word. In a preliminary experiment with 24 lists of related words, 12 of the lists that had higher rates of false recall of critical nonpresented words (FRC) were identified. In the present experiment, the words in those 12 lists were used; 33 subjects were assigned to a random condition or a blocked condition. In the random condition, one or two associates of each critical nonpresented word were included in one list. In the blocked condition, each list was composed of associates of one critical nonpresented word. In both conditions, 12 lists of 15 words each were presented. If blocked presentation of associates of one critical nonpresented word is not a necessary condition for FRC, random presentation of associates would produce FRC. However, the rate of FRC in the random condition was 3%. This suggests that blocked presentation of related words is necessary for the formation of false recall.
Irvin Rock maintained that the perception is indirect, at least in the sense that some conscious perceptions are caused by other prior conscious perceptions rather than being directly and independently determined by retinal stimulation. The present paper, from his point of view, reviews a variety of motion phenomena which include stereokinetic movement, kinetic-depth effect, apparent motion, appature viewing, Ames' Window, and so on. Using Macromedia Director 8, we prepared a computer-developed motion program of the related phenomena. Through the examination of the Rock's explanation and the program, we identified some kinds of principles such as the preference of rest (apparent quiet), especially the rest of background, and the preference of solution to be moving three-dimensionally. Furthermore, the necessity of comparison among the presentation devices such as a turntable, a film, a video, and a computer are proposed, in order to specify their effects on motion perception.
Recently much focus is given to the attentional blink phenomenon (AB phenomenon) which is a proactive interference effect of Target1 on Target2 when dual-task with certain time lag is used under the situation of rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). Various ideas have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, and they can be grouped roughly into five models (Jolicoeur, 1998). This paper examines the conceptual characteristics of these five models. The author conducted some analysis exploring the interface between the AB phenomenon and memory theory (short-term memory and working memory) as well as resource theory (multiple-resource theory) based on "central interference theory" which is believed to have the strongest explanatory power at the moment. The analysis suggested that the AB phenomenon can be an effective bridge between these theories.
First, eight quantitative experiments conducted by the present author and his collaborators on Gestalt factors are reviewed. These are concerned with perceptual grouping in simultaneous, successive and moving patterns, as well as perceptual transparency, pattern masking, apparent motion, and span of attention (Figures 1〜9). For example, factor of proximity is compared with factor of similarities in color, lightness, size and form, varying separation between stimulus objects in bi-stable situations (Figures1 and 6) The matched separations are used as the measures of similarities and compared between different stimulus dimensions. Factors of common fate and symmetry are also examined, using moving dots (Figure5). Secondly, the functions and functioning levels of these Gestalt factors and the law of minimal changes are discussed in relation to perceptual information-processing.
Recently there has been considerable interest in the idea of false memories or memories for events that never actually happened. One recently paradigm for false memory research was developed by Roediger & McDermott (1995), based on earlier research by Deese (1959), and is known as the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In this DRM paradigm, participants are asked to learn lists of words that are all semantically associated with the same critical non-presented word. Each list was composed of 15 list words related to one critical non-presented word. An example of a list for the critical non-presented word 'sleep' is: bed, rest, awake, tired, dream, wake, night, blanket, doze, slumber, sonore, pillow, peace, yawn, drowsy. Their experiments revealed remarkable levels of false recall and false recognition in participants tested individually. In the present article, I briefly review the experiments with manipulations of encoding, materials, participants, and tests, and how they influence false recall and false recognition in the DRM paradigm. Then I introduce two types of experiments, that is, one attempted to determine the effect of negative mood on false memories of negative-toned words, the other was to investigate whether collaborative remembering creates false memories relative to individual recollection.
This article briefly reviews the issues of memory processing for concept formation in animals. The range of topics has included organization and active processing in animal memory, abstract concepts, categorization, functional equivalence, and abstraction of prototypes. Animal concept studies have revealed that abstract concepts and exemplar specific rules are not mutually exclusive. With artificial categories constructed to mimic the essential nature of natural categories, my colleagues and I have found that discrimination training with only few exemplars enabled pigeons to abstract prototypes and that the discrimination transferred to novel exemplars including perceptually disparate stimuli. Our findings suggest that exemplar learning taking place at a very basic stage of memory processing enables organisms to learn visual concepts characterized by categorical coherence or the so-called "family resemblance among the members".
Connectionism is an approach to understanding the mechanisms of human cognition using simulated networks of neuron-like processing units. In this article, I report on recent progress in connectionist models that simulate empirical data relating to human memory processes, these being AB-AC list learning, word naming, understanding word meanings, and sentence understanding. I also summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these connectionist models. I argue that connectionist computer simulation offers significant benefits for today's psychological researches.
Comparative psychology has main focus of attention not on the individual differences within a species, but on the differences between species. It is right in the origin of interests of the research area. The study of individual differences by intra-species comparison, however, consistently keeps the significance for an exact understanding of a species, however often one cannot obtain clear results by the large individual differences in experimental studies. Inbred strains take an important role for a good tool for the analysis of the structure of a species, because a strain is genetically different to each other before an experiment as a species is. It is necessary especially for the study of individual difference of behavior. This article argues the usefulness of inbred strains for analyzing individual difference, that leads to better knowledge of a species.
Purposes of comparative study in psychology can be classified into 5 categories. The first is collection of animal behavior to know diversity of behavior. The second is cross species study to confirm generality of a theory. The third is to compare A with B, this is known, to understand A. Anthropomorphisim is an example of this comparison in which human mind is considered to be known. The forth is reconstruction of evolution of behavior through comparison of behavior of modern animals. The fifth is analysis of phylogenetic contingency that produces a particular behavior. Each purpose has its own strategy of comparison. Finally, examples of similar behavior with different brain structures and similar behavior with common brain structures are discussed to emphasize importance of comparative brain/behavior study.
In this article, we summarized the recent progress in the research of visual cognition in chimpanzees from the perspective of comparative cognitive science. Topics are (1) attentional mechanism in chimpanzee's visual cognition, and (2) perceptual basis of social cognition. In a series of experiments, we found the similar results in chimpanzees to humans, while there are some differences between the two species. We also reviewed the studies of these topics in humans, and discussed the possibility of the introduction of the comparative cognitive perspective to the human research. If we want to try to answer the "why" questions to the mechanism of human visual cognition, comparative cognitive perspective should be necessary.
There are two opposing models of how the serial deployment of attention is controlled in visual search: "memory-driven model" and "memory-free model". The former suggests that attention is controlled by a visual short-term memory and the latter assumes that attention is controlled by no memory. This paper gives two evidences for the memory-driven model. First, the previously checked items were memorized and inhibited in serial visual search, which is called "inhibition of return". This mechanism can improve the efficiency of search by preventing reexamination of rejected distractors. Second, the previously displayed distractors were memorized to discriminate newly presented items from them, which is called "visual marking". This mechanism is useful for discrimination between newly appeared objects and background. We discuss about what kind of representation on memory is used in these mechanisms.