The aim of this paper was to investigate how the faces of persons with different expressions are represented in memory. The subjects encoded three photographed faces for each of 24 test persons. The main conditions were four combinations of face repetitions (same and different expressions) and their presentation intervals (massed and spaced). This was followed by an unexpected yes-no recognition test in which identical pictures of the target faces or the same person's expression-changed faces were randomly presented with distractor faces. The same-picture recognition test showed that the same-expression repetition produced higher recognition than the different-expression repetition. The expression-changed recognition test showed that under the different-expression repetition, the massed presentation produced higher recognition than the spaced presentation, but under the same-expression repetition, there was no difference between the massed and spaced presentations. These findings suggest that the storing of more expressions facilitates face representation.
Using the Remember/Know paradigm, the nature of recollective experience was examined in recognition memory tasks. Participants gave "Remember" judgments to items that were recognized with recollection experience and "Know" judgments to items that were recognized with feeling of familiarity. Varying the presentation rates of the study items increased only "Remember" judgments. Varying the script type of items (Katakana and Hiragana) manipulated between study and test phases decreased "Know" judgments. These results suggest that "Remember" judgments reflect recollective processing and that "Know" judgments reflect perceptually familiarity processing. Also, these results are consistent with the dual-process models of recognition, which assumes that recollection and familiarity are independent processes.
Three experiments examined the relationships between ocular vergence and the perceived depth and directions. In Experiment 1 with 60 observers, we measured the divergence limit when the separation of the stereograms was varied gradually so that the visual axes of both eyes diverge over the parallelism. For 83% of the 60 observers, the eyes diverged beyond the parallelism. In Experiment 2 with 11 observers, the perceived depth, distance, and size were measured as a function of the symmetric ocular vergence. The perceived depth increased as the vergence angle decreases and the perceived depth and size covaried with the perceived distance. The results of Experiment 2 confirmed those of the previous studies which showed the depth scaling from vergence angle. In Experiment 3 with 6 observers, the perceived visual direction was measured as a function of the asymmetric ocular vergence. The visual direction varied by one half of the angle with which one eye deviated from its primary position. The results of Experiment 3 confirmed the predictions of Wells-Hering's laws of visual direction.
In feature search task, detection performance in the central visual field has been said to be superior to the peripheral. However, Carrasco and Frieder (1997) reported that by cortically magnifying the stimuli, the performance of feature search task was equated over the visual fields. We conducted feature search experiments, in which subjects judged the orientation of the target to compare the temporal dynamics of visual search between the visual fields by using the speed accuracy trade-off procedure. We equated the sensitivity to the visual stimuli in the central and peripheral visual fields by the cortical magnification factor. In the results, the search performances in the early phase were identical across the visual fields. However, in the late phase, the performance in the central visual field was superior to the peripheral. These results indicate that a feature search performance in the different visual fields depends on not only the cortical magnification factor, but also the temporal dynamics of feature search process based on early temporal mechanisms and attentional mechanisms.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the surrounding situation of an object on the word meaning qualification of young children. Fifty children (Experiment 1) and Forty eight children (Experiment 2) were tested, all aged five years old. In both experiments, the experimenter labeled the target examples with surrounding situation (for example, "An elephant in a cage [Experiment 1]", "An elephant in a cage and a man riding a horse [Experiment 2]") with a novel word and showed these to the subjects. Then the participants were shown choice examples with surrounding situation the same as the target example, and choice examples with surrounding situation different to the target example, and were asked to give meaning qualification for the novel word. The result was that the subjects who were shown the choice examples with surrounding situation the same as the target example tended to give word meaning qualification including the surrounding situation. On the other hand, the subjects who were shown the choice examples with surrounding situation different to the target example tended to give word meaning qualification on a conceptual level (for example, "Elephant" [Experiment 1], "Animal" [Experiment 2]). These findings suggested that the agreement or disagreement of surrounding situation of an object has an effect on word meaning qualification of young children when given a labeling word and when asked to give word meaning qualifications.
The present study examined the relationship between reading comprehension and two processes of the inhibitory mechanism. Forty-six participants performed reading comprehension test and three conditions of the reading span test (RST): distractor, interference, and control conditions. In the RST, participants were instructed to read sentences aloud while holding target words in each sentence. The distractor and interference conditions required the ability to inhibit distractor information in the context, and to suppress no-longer-relevant information within working memory, respectively. The results showed that performance was lower in the distractor and interference conditions than in the control condition, and that reading comprehension score was significantly correlated only with performance in the interference condition, with neither the distractor nor control condition. We conclude that the suppression of no-longer-relevant information contributes to the correlation between the RST and reading comprehension, while two inhibitory abilities play an important role in the RST performance.
An interesting field of basic research in psychology of sensation and perception named "psychophysics of reading" developed in the process of solving problems practitioners have been facing in the fields of special education and rehabilitation for persons with visual impairments. Psychophysical study of relationship between stimulus dimensions, such as spatial resolution, contrast, and visual field size and reading speed gave us basic understanding about our reading behavior as well as a good tool to help persons with visual impairments find suitable aids and environmental modification in order to ease their reading difficulty. Especially the reading speed function of print size for each patient gives us a very sensitive measure about patient's quality of vision. As an example, one of our recent findings showed that the reading function explained the claim of degraded vision from a patient with ring scotoma better than usual visual acuity measure.
It argued about the difference between basic researches and applied researches of psychology. It is not simple to distinguish both. There may be various viewpoints. For example, they are the position of a researcher, source of research cost, the purpose of research, etc. The feature of applied researches was shown through the actual studies of industrial safety and underground work places. It is effective to exchange based on each characteristic of basic study and an applied study. There may be research on a traffic accident as a point of contact of basic research and an applied research.
This article briefly discusses the issues of measuring the psychological effects caused by transmission delay of the image and sound in audiovisual telecommunication. The authors propose two measuring methods which are based on verbal conditioning and implicit learning. These methods can effectively measure the effects of transmission delay as a decrement of behavioral performance of participant and have the advantage that they can detect the effect even when participants could not be aware of the change in their own performance.