The present study attempted to determine the effects of the organization of lists and retention interval on false memory. False recognition was induced by presenting the subjects with words which were closely associated with a critical lure. The subjects estimated the frequency of usage in a blocked presentation order (high organization condition), or a letter counting task in a random presentation order (low organization condition). The subjects were then tested both immediately after the study phase and two weeks later. The rate of false recognition and the remembered judgments for the critical lures in the low organization condition were significantly lower than those in the high organization condition. A reliable decrease of true recognition and remembered judgments for the presented words was obtained across the retention interval in the high organization condition, but was not obtained for the critical lures.
The present study examined how facial and vocal properties have an effect on forming an impression of others. In the study phase, the personality characteristics extracted from the stimulus faces and voices were investigated. Three characteristics of personality (social desirability, activity, and intelligence) were extracted. One of these three factors (social desirability) which explained most of the variance was used for the experimental phase. In the experimental phase comparisons were made between the impressions formed from a single channel (face or voice) and the impressions formed from multi-channel inputs (face and voice simultaneously). Furthermore, the present study investigated whether or not the auditory channel is more influential than visual stimuli in situations in which: (1) the face and voice personality attributes (social desirability) are congruent: (2) the face and voice personality attributes (social desirability) are incongruent; and (3) either the face or the voice is presented singly. The results indicated that the voice channel predominated in the formation of impressions when the face/voice personality characteristics were incongruent. Consequently, it was observed that auditory information was superior to visual information during the formation of impressions.
This study investigated the role of the central executive in the use of long-term memory, and in particular examined semantically encoding verbal stimuli using long-term information. A dual-task method was adopted. The primary task was an immediate serial recall which used two types of verbal stimuli, nonwords and words. It has been reported that the recall of words is better than the recall of nonwords because nonwords contain a phonological code without any semantic information, whereas words involve both types of information. The main analysis compared the performance of the recall of nonwords and words when secondary tasks were performed simultaneously. The secondary tasks were articulatory suppression and verification of simple arithmetic that imposed a burden on the phonological loop and central executive, respectively. The recall performance of the nonwords was disrupted by the same amount by each of the secondary tasks. However, the recall performance of the words was effected more when an arithmetic task was performed. These results confirmed the assumption that the central executive plays an important role in semantically encoding verbal information.
The main purpose of this paper is to predict future trends in memory research, based on an analysis of present research activities. In the first section of the paper, the history of memory research since Ebbinghaus, H. (1885) is briefly described noting a number of epoch-making studies over the last 100 years. In the second section, the current state of memory research is discussed in terms of historical trends. In particular, three characteristics of current memory research are highlighted: (1) the shifts from 'behavioral' to 'cognitive' and from 'quantitative' to 'qualitative' based research approaches; (2) the move from laboratory research to everyday memory research, addressing societal problems; and (3) the diversity in research methodology, reflecting more interdisciplinary collaboration. Finally, three trends for future research are proposed: (a) principle-seeking research, which can also make indirect social contributions; (b) problem-solving research related to our everyday lives and society; and (c) special period-relevant research, such as computer support of human memory. In conclusion, it is important that memory research contributes to human well-being.
The caudate nucleus in the primate basal ganglia plays an important role in integrating cognitive/motivational and motor signals, in addition to its classical role in movement generation. Our recent studies have shown that some population of caudate neurons are sensitive to the association between visual target position and reward availability. This activity is anticipatory in the sense that it starts even before the target onset. The caudate anticipatory neurons change their activity just after a single experience of 'surprising' reward event (unexpected reward delivery or unexpected lack of reward delivery), with which saccade latency correlates well. These data demonstrate that the caudate nucleus is a part of neural circuits that enable animals to quickly adapt to ever-changing environmental situations.
Recent developments in non-invasive imaging techniques have made possible the identification of various cortical areas related to gustation. Among these methods, MEG has been highly effective in the localization of the primary gustatory cortex, exhibiting both fine temporal and spatial resolution. We measured gustatory-evoked magnetic fields using a tactile free taste stimulator, and found the shortest latencies of activation to occur at the transition area between the parietal operculum and insula (area G) and at the bottom of the central sulcus (CS). We found that the latency of area G activation differed among tastants, and the frontal operculum and anterior insula were activated after long latencies after area G activation. The magnitude of activity in area G increased in a tastant concentration-dependent manner to a greater degree than did perceived intensity; the latency, however, did not correlate with concentration. The identification of these two areas as the PGA is consistent with the aforementioned clinical symptoms associated with lesions or epileptic foci in the parietal lobe.
It is generally accepted that the brain can resolve the order of two stimuli that are separated in time by 30ms. This applies to temporal order judgment of two tactile stimuli, delivered one to each hand, as long as the arms are uncrossed. However, crossing the arms caused many subjects to misreport the temporal order. In a quarter of subjects, the judgment was clearly inverted when the two stimuli were separated by 100-300ms. The reversal was not due to simple confusion of hands, because correct judgment was recovered at longer intervals (e.g., 1.5s). These results suggest that subjects cannot be basing their judgments solely on the locations of stimuli on the body surface, but rather on their locations in space. When the stimuli were delivered to the tips of sticks held in each hand, the judgment was altered by crossing the sticks without changing the spatial locations of the hands. Thus, the judgment does not simply depend on the spatial locations of the hands per se, where the mechanoreceptors are located. From the results, we suggest that tactile stimuli are ordered in time only after they are referred to relevant locations in space, where the hands and fingers themselves, or the tips of tools are located.
The central retina is selectively damaged by the age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a rapidly increasing eye disease. AMD is the primary cause of visual impairment in the western countries. The central scotoma resulted from AMD influences reading and facial recognition severely and the patients experience difficulties in social life. This article reviewed studies related to reading and central scotoma in past 20 years, especially SLO studies, and discussed on the relationship between reading behavior and human retina and the possibility of eccentric viewing.
The eye movement patterns of the good readers, the skimmers who are normal readers but were instructed to read texts in the same speed as that of the good readers, and the normal readers, were investigated. The good readers and the skimmers had larger saccadic sizes and shorter fixation durations than the normal readers. This suggests that the good readers and the skimmers may have wider effective visual field in reading or may have just skipped the some words in scanning the text. To check the comprehension levels among those three subjects, the gist and detailed comprehension tests were done. The results of these tests indicate that the good readers had not lower scores than other subjects, which is different from almost all of the conclusions of past investigations. This means the good readers do not increase their reading speed by sacrificing the amount they understand from the text.
Four experiments are reported and summarized relating to the reading of continuously scrolling text. In Experiment 1 participants read Japanese text moving pixel by pixel from left to right in a presentation window. The window size was one character in height and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, or 15 characters in width. Subjects self-adjusted the speed (rate) of scrolling characters in the window by means of key presses to achieve an individual optimum. The speed was measured and termed "Optimal Scrolling Speed" (OSS). The result showed that OSS quickly increased with the window size up to 5 characters and then gradually changed up to 15 characters. The average OSS at 7-15 characters of window-size was 6.5 characters/sec (about 150ms/character). In Experiment 2 subjects were required to detect two types of errors. The first is called "surface" error and is defined to mean searching ability of misprints. The second is contextual error and is defined to mean the comprehensive ability of the text contents. Both types of error detection were studied using the optimal speed at each window size. The results showed that neither surface nor contextual error detection is related to window size. Subjects detected context errors better than surface errors. This difference indicates that the OSS was an appropriate speed to comprehend the text. In Experiment 3 performance on the error detection tasks were examined at double speed and a half speed of the OSS. The results showed that the performance on surface error detection increased when scrolling speed decreased. However, performance on the contextual error detection did not improve at speeds slower than the OSS. This difference suggests that the OSS is the maximum speed to comprehend the text. In Experiment 4, "regression eye-movement" was studied during the reading of "continuously scrolling" text as well as of "still (or static)" text presentations. Three native groups read "Norwegian Wood" (by Haruki Murakami) in English, Chinese, and Japanese editions. a. The proportion of regression eye movement for the static text was the highest in English (12.3%), then in Japanese (6.36%) and in Chinese (2.8%). b. For scrolling text the proportion of regression was increased in all three languages: 42% in Japanese, 41.5% in Chinese and 21% in English.
This article introduces studies that have investigated on supporting older adults for learning procedures to operate home equipment in their residences. In order to solve this "learning problem" important to older adults, it is vital to make clear a cognitive mechanism of learning procedures by older adults and develop supporting methods. Especially, instructional support is one of the principal supporting methods. Therefore, it is a first research task for psychologists to investigate how writing techniques of procedural instructions support older adults for their reading comprehension of procedures. Stored basic findings of signaling effects about instructions are significant not only in contributing to solve the "learning problem", but also in contributing to construct a cognitive aging theory. Furthermore, they suggest the ideal way for basic psychological studies to make a contribution to the community.
The first purpose of this report was a selective review of resent findings concerning neuropsychological profile in patients with schizophrenia. Second, the studies concerning semantic memory and eye movement were introduced. We administered verbal learning test, story memory test, and verbal fluency test. As a result, (1) schizophrenic patients showed failure to spontaneously make use of the implicit semantic category, (2) patients performed worse than controls on the score of thematic sequencing, (3) semantic structure of patients was different from that of controls in animal category. These findings suggest schema in long-term memory is different between patients and controls. The results of brain imaging studies suggest that memory impairments in patients with schizophrenia may be related to dysfunction in both the frontal region and the medial temporal area. Furthermore, the findings of eye movements and vision of peripheral field suggest that restricted eye-scanning in schizophrenia is independent of the size of the object and is not due to poor eye movement, but may be related to impaired cognitive strategy.
The present study reports on examples of operant conditioning in domestic pigs that were bred under ordinary feeding schemes of the livestock industry. Two castrated male pigs could successfully be shaped to press a lever with successive approximation by 3.4g food pellets and 2s buzzers without additional food deprivation. Frequency of responses was increased from 5/min to 10/min during training with CRF. Rapid extinction was observed. In later sessions of acquisition, pigs hoarded food pellets by pressing the lever several times before going to the feeder. This hoarding behavior was eliminated when only the first response of the hoarding response was reinforced. This result suggests that the hoarding behavior is a strategy to save the cost required for reciprocating movements between the lever and the feeder. In the next experiment, the shuttling behavior of a pig was shaped using two manipulanda where responses to one manipulandum (a response panel) were reinforced by food pellets, and those to the other manipulandum (a concrete-block) were reinforced by presentations of the response panel. This shuttling behavior could be applied to discrete operant procedures such as simultaneous visual discrimination in adult pigs.
In a go/no-go discrimination procedure, four pigeons were trained to discriminate dynamic images of four human faces which were rotating around the y-axis from +67°to -67°. After completion of the training, transfer to static images at nine depth orientations (0°, ±23°, ±45°, ±67°, and ±90°) was tested in extinction. The pigeons showed excellent transfer to the static stimuli, but responses to the positive faces significantly decreased for novel views outside the range spanned by the dynamic stimuli. The findings suggest that the responses of the pigeons were based on two-dimensional properties of the faces seen in the training images rather than the three-dimensional properties of the human faces.
A false memory is created by studying a list of items related to an item which is not presented. The present study examined whether a haptic study/test results in false recognition and, if so, whether a congruency of the presentation modality in the study and test reduces the false recognition. Following haptic or visual study of lists of objects participants completed a haptic or visual recognition test. We obtained a haptic false memory. Furthermore the amount of false recognition was reduced when the presentation modality was congruent with the study modality. Haptic study reduced false recognition in the haptic test, in comparison to the visual test. In contrast, visual study reduced visual false recognition. The results support the proposal of a generality with respect to cues that can reduce false recognition.
Presenting a precue near the location where a target will appear causes an enhancement of visual performances. This procedure is called peripheral cuing, and the effect of peripheral cuing has been interpreted as a result of an allocation of covert attention. However, a low-level visual interaction between the cue and the target can enhance representation of the target to induce the cuing effect. We examined whether the effect of peripheral cuing is due to an attentional process, or to a low-level visual interaction. To do this, we compared conditions with similar visual interactions, but with attention allocated differently. In one condition, we presented the first cue near the target and the second cue distant from the target, to deprive attention from the target location. In another condition, a single cue was presented near the target to allocate attention at the target. We found that the accuracy of discriminating the tilt of a target was lower in the condition which attention was deprived. This result suggests that the effect of peripheral cuing is due to an attentional process.
We examined whether, and to what extent, the sequential expectation of targets at more than one location facilitates the processing at expected locations by using a color-discrimination task for sequentially presented targets. In Experiment 1, targets were presented sequentially at one of eight iso-eccentric placeholders. In 80% of trials, the target location was regularly shifted in the clockwise direction for each target presentation. In 20% of trials, the second target appeared at a random location except for the next clockwise position. The reaction times (RTs) were shorter for the second target presented at not only the expected second, but also the expected third, location than presented at other locations. The results of Experiment 1 were basically replicated in Experiment 2 in which a longer sequence than Experiment 1 was used. These results show that attention is controlled by sequential expectation of target locations. Attention can facilitate visual processing on locations of up to at least two future events.
The influences of phonology at the pitch accent level and misprint location in a sentence on Japanese proofreading were investigated. The participants silently read short Japanese sentences and detected misprints in them. We found that more misprint detection errors were made when the misprint was the same pitch-accent homophone as that of a word that would fit the sentence meaning, than when the misprint was a different pitch-accent homophone or a non-homophone. This result suggests that phonological information at the pitch-accent level is used in Japanese proofreading. The interaction of the phonology and the misprint location had an influence on misprint detection speed. This indicates that the contextual information of a sentence is essential for misprint detection, and the homophony and the location of the misprint influences the speed of context comprehension.
The repetition of the spatial layouts of search items implicitly facilitates visual search (contextual cueing effect; Chun & Jiang, 1998). We investigated the spatiotemporal properties of the mechanism of contextual cueing by using a hybrid paradigm of visual search and probe-dot detection. The results showed that for the repeated layouts detection of a probe dot was facilitated at a search target location and was inhibited at distractor locations. The effects were obtained at a short display-probe SOA (100ms). These results suggest that in an early stage of visual processing contextual cueing modulates attentional processing by facilitation to the location of stimuli which are to be attended to, and by inhibition to the locations of stimuli which are to be ignored.
An interrelationship in the recognition of facial expressions of the six basic and specific emotions has been inferred from neurological cases who have displayed a disproportionate impairment in recognizing them. The previous reports, however, are vulnerable to the criticism that the apparent emotion-specific impairments are merely artifacts due to the various levels of difficulty in recognising the different emotions. We propose a new method for the assessment of recognition of facial expression. In this method, the difficulty artifacts are fully controlled by means of morphing and item response theory (IRT). We used a morphing technique to create intermediate facial expressions which would have various levels of difficulty for recognising each emotion. By using IRT, the sensitivity to the expressions was estimated by taking account of differential difficulty levels. The results revealed that a sensitivity to happiness alone was not correlated with a sensitivity to the other emotions, and indicated that the recognition of happiness was independent.
In the frog retina OFF-sustained type ganglion cells (dimming detectors) generate oscillatory synchronized discharges with a light which is dimming. To elucidate the function of the oscillatory synchronization (OS) in the retina we performed behavioral experiments and multielectrode recordings from dimming detectors. Frogs exhibited an escape behavior when an expanding dark spot was presented on a computer monitor. The probability of the escape behavior was higher as the final size of the expanding dark spot was increased. Multi-electrode recordings from the isolated retina revealed that the OS was enhanced as the final size of the expanding dark spot was increased. The OS could be blocked when the isolated retina was superfused with bicuculline, a GABA_A receptor blocker. Injection of bicuculline into the eyes of the frog significantly suppressed the escape behavior but did not affect the optokinetic responses to a drifting grating. We conclude that the OS of dimming detectors in the retina is essential for triggering the escape behavior.
Recent studies suggest that the shape of three-dimensional (3-D) objects causes the systematic distortion of their apparent size (Miura & Taya, 2001) and we have investigated which property of the objects may do this. The stimuli were stereograms defining four 3-D shapes: a pair of frontoparallel rectangles, a triangular ridge, a cylindrical ridge, and a trapezoidal ridge. The observer's task was to match the height of a line-drawing of a rectangle (comparison stimulus) to that of the stimuli. The results showed that the apparent height of the object decreased as the slant of their surface protruding from the background was increased. The results implied that our visual system takes account of the slant of a surface for size estimation.
Motion-defined motion (MDM) is the motion of patterns defined by local movement direction. Motion- and luminance-defined motions (LDM) are perceived as misaligned when they are presented physically with the same speed and in phase (the perceptual offset phenomenon, POP). In this study, we examined the effects of ISIs (inter stimulus intervals) that were introduced between pattern motion frames of the POP. When an ISI was introduced to MDM, the estimated offset decreased rapidly as the ISI increased from 0 to 80ms. Furthermore, when the ISI was 80ms most subjects reported offsets in the reverse direction. These results indicate that simple differences in the transduction latency for MDM and LDM cannot explain the POP.