We investigated the changes of perceptual representation of a 3D wooden framed object that was constructed corresponding to a 2D Mach book. The 3D framed object had only an outline of the book, and it lacked the spine and the left and right pages. When this 3D framed object was observed however, about 30% of the observers perceived a spine and a difference in brightness between the left and right pages (i.e., global representation). Other observers perceived it simply as a framed model of a book without the spine (i.e., local representation). To examine how the perceptual representations of the framed object changed, we manipulated the manner of visual search in Experiment 1. About 60% of the participants perceived the framed object globally when they searched a part of the spine, or searched the left and right pages alternatively. In Experiments 2 to 4, the participants were required to passively or actively touch a framed or filled book model while observing the framed object. The proportion of participants who perceived the framed object globally also increased when they actively touched the filled wooden book model. These findings are discussed in terms of perceptual coordination between vision and touch.
This paper examines the relevance of the constraints of working memory to Japanese syntactic reanalyses. A phrase-by-phrase, self-paced reading experiment was performed with two kinds of sentences which were assumed to involve reanalyses as experimental sentences. The comprehension accuracy and the reading time were analyzed in relation to the constraints of working memory estimated by the Japanese Reading Span Test. Our results indicated that a reader with a high score in the test, comprehended the sentences with costly reanalyses more accurately, and spent a longer time than a reader with a low score. This suggests that the efficiency generally assumed for readers with high (Japanese) Reading Span Scores does not necessarily imply rapidity in reanalyses. Some implications of our results for models of working memory, and the significance of the limitations of working memory, are discussed.
In this study age-related changes in attentional control were examined by using a visual search task. Eight young adults and eight older adults were asked to detect a target while ignoring any task-irrelevant distractors that could capture their attention (onset distractors). The reaction times (RTs), sensitivity for target detection (d') and the response bias (β) of each participant were measured. The parameter d' indicated the allocation of attention to the target area, and β indicated judgment criteria that were independent of attention. The results revealed that: (1) in the onset distractor condition, the RTs of the older adults were slower than the young adults; (2) the parameter d' was reduced in the older adults as the number of onset distractors decreased; and (3) the response bias did not affect the age-related changes of the RTs even though the parameter (β) was high for young adults and low for older adults. These findings suggested that the deterioration of attentional control of the older adults was related to multiple factors, such as the number of stimuli and the presence of onset distractors.
This study examined the effects of depth of processing and elaboration on explicit memories. The depth of processing was altered by three types of orienting tasks: physically featured, semantically featured, and self-referentially featured encoding conditions. The degree of the elaboration was manipulated by varying the number of orienting tasks: one group of participants coped with one task and the other group with three tasks. In the first experiment participants in the semantically featured and self-referentially featured conditions showed significantly better performance than those in the physically featured condition for the free recall and recognition tests. The result indicated clear effects of the depth of processing. In the second experiment the performance of a cued recall test by the participants did not change as a function of elaboration, but it varied in relation to the depth of processing. In addition, in both experiments a significantly better performance for the free recall test was demonstrated by participants in the three task condition. The results are discussed in terms of the levels-of-processing and elaboration of encoding hypotheses.
This study examined "power" perception of a collision event in which an object A hit an object B. The movement of object B was occluded after the collision. The relative speeds, the relative weights, and the distances moved by the object B, were estimated in three sessions by the participants. The data of each participant was analysed by using multiple linear regression analysis. The objective variable was the estimated distance moved by object B. The most effective explanatory variable of all of the participants was the estimated velocity of object B. This result indicates that "power" perception of a collision event is determined by the estimated speed of object B after the collision, in accordance with Michotte's (1963) theory of "the radius of action". Two kinds of individual differences were also observed. One difference was the range of estimated distance of movement. The other was the degree of the effect of the estimated velocity of object B and the effects of other explanatory variables. These individual differences are items for further study.
Twenty-four male participants studied five consonant alphabets. They then performed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) that combined a recognition judgment (old vs. new) and a valence judgment (pleasant vs. unpleasant). Faster and more accurate responses were observed when old judgments and pleasant judgments share a same response key than when old judgments and unpleasant judgments share a same response key. These results indicated that the studied items were associated with a positive evaluation. The results were discussed in terms of related phenomena, such as a mere acceptance effect. Some theoretical implications about the relationship between memory and affect were also discussed.
We investigated whether both squirrel monkeys and humans utilize the same cues to identify individual faces of their own and other species as well as the faces between two species. The squirrel monkeys were trained to discriminate between two individual faces. They were then tested on all-erased probe trials with a variety of modified stimuli. The test stimuli were only some facial features of the training stimuli in Experiments 1 and 3, composite faces in Experiment 2, and whole-body images of both species in Experiment 3. We found that the monkeys can identify individual faces of their own species better than those of other species. The eyes had a significant effect on the discrimination of between faces of both species. Furthermore, unlike humans, monkeys could use the outer boundary of monkey faces. These results suggest that squirrel monkeys could utilize their faces for the discrimination of the individuals and between two species, also they may have two strategies for facial processing. This diversity of facial processing may be due to the difference in the role of faces in the two species.
In this paper, I summarize the series of experiments with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) on the perception and cognition of faces and related topics from the comparative-cognitive-developmental perspective. Chimpanzees show the face-specific inversion effect. Under the rotational matching paradigm, the chimpanzee showed longer response times when the sample and choice stimuli differed in orientation. In addition, they showed more efficient detection of upright faces among inverted ones than in the reversed condition. Furthermore, the face pops out from the other nonface objects. These results imply that the chimpanzees also process the face in a configural manner. Gaze is one of the most important information in the face. The chimpanzee showed efficient detection of direct-gaze face against the averted-gaze face (stare-in-the-crowd effect) but this discrimination was not extended to the discrimination of head orientations. Humans show the reflexive shift of visuospatial attention triggered by the gaze cues. A series of experiments, however, showed that the voluntary mechanism of attention shift was more dominant than reflexive one in chimpanzees.
In this paper I review infants' psychophysics experimental studies. And I show the infants' brain activity studies. The first experimental study examined infants' brain activity in response to upright and inverted faces using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which can non-invasively record hemodynamic changes of the brain. We measured changes in cerebral oxygenation in ten 5-8-month-olds' left and right lateral areas while they were looking at upright and inverted faces. This is the first evidence showing that there is an inter-hemispheric difference on the effect of face inversion in the infant brain using a hemodynamic method. The second study was to examine whether a developmental difference occurs in brain activity when infants look at frontal and profile views. We compared NIRS results in 5- and 8-month-old infants, while they were looking at frontal and profile views and objects. We found that the concentration of oxy-Hb and total-Hb in the 5-month-old group increased for only frontal views in the right temporal regions. In contrast, the 8-month-old group increased for both frontal and profile views in the right temporal regions.