Previous studies have shown that the onset of a stimulus captures exogenous attention to its modality, and affects the processing of a subsequent stimulus. Turatto et al. (2002) used detection tasks for visual and auditory modalities and revealed that nonspatial attention could shift from one modality to the other. The present study investigated these attentional shifts in discrimination task. The time course of discriminative judgment varied depending on whether or not nonspatial attention needed to be endogenously shifted to another modality. In particular, the benefit in discrimination was obtained with longer stimulus onset asynchrony when cue and target stimuli were presented in different modalities than in the same modality. These results suggest that it is time consuming to shift nonspatial attention from one modality to another.
Sato (2011) demonstrated that the frame had a positive effect on hiragana recognition using a letter completion test (LCT). Following this conclusion, to determine whether its effect is mainly influenced by the character's relative position or by closure, 4 different LCTs were conducted: 1) regular frames (RF) and 2) without frames (WOF), both used in Sato (2011); 3) frames without corners (WOC), which reduces the enclosure effect; and 4) center points without frames (CP), which reduces the relative position information. WOC and CP tests were first conducted on Native Japanese (NJ) and compared against Sato's results with RF and WOF LCTs. An additional study was conducted on Japanese Learners (JL), considered to have limited ability to recognize letter forms, using RF, CP, and WOF LCTs. Compared to WOF results, WOC showed similar improvement as RF. On the other hand, CP gave mixed results, with small improvement similar to RF seen for NJ, and as with WOF, no improvement seen for JL. These results suggest that, characters' relative positions influence the recognition of hiragana.
Boundary extension is a phenomenon in which an individual remembers seeing more of a scene than was actually shown. The current study evaluated a multisource model of boundary extension in which the phenomenon is considered to be a false memory elicited by internally generated information, and to be induced by a source-monitoring error. Eighty students completed a rating scale commonly used to assess boundary extension, as well as two cognitive tasks, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm and a self-rating of the vividness of subjective visual representation. Magnitude of boundary extension was significantly correlated with the measures of false memory, but not with the measures of source-monitoring error. These results were partially consistent with the multisource model.
The present study examines the phrasing effect, without temporal or spatial grouping, in serial pattern learning in rats. Rats were trained with a 14-7-3-1-0-14-7-3-1-0 series per day, consisting of a varying number of 45 mg food pellets, in a straight runway with a 20 s inter-run interval (IRI). Rats were kept in a bright or dark holding cage during the IRI. The Unphrased Group was kept in one of the two cages throughout each presentation series, whereas for the Phrased Group, the holding cage was changed to the alternate cage only during the IRI between the fifth and sixth runs. Thus, this unique cage cue could be a phrasing indication that would divide the subpatterns without any temporal or spatial grouping. The Phrased Group showed better serial learning performance than the Unphrased Group. In the extinction test, the phrasing cue increased running speeds only in the Phrased Group, not in the Unphrased Group. These results show that presentation of a phrasing cue without temporal or spatial grouping can produce a phrasing effect, supporting the prediction of the memory-discrimination learning theory that assumes overshadowing of inter-item association by phrasing cues.
Basic principles of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and its extensions to nonexperimental areas such as test theory and factor analysis were briefly reviewed. Then the distinct feature of experimental use of ANOVA, namely the sole dependence on significance testing, was pointed out together with its methodological limitations. The remaining part of the article was devoted to discussion on whether and how recent statistical reform, which advocates the use of effect size, confidence interval and power analysis, can overcome these limitations.
The analysis of variance (ANOVA) has long held the status of being the most used (or I should say "abused") statistical technique in psychological research. Although there is no doubt about the usefulness of ANOVA, it is not free from disadvantages such as difficulty in accepting null hypothesis and multiplicity problem with multiple tests. In order to deal with these problems, the objective of this paper is to introduce Bayesian evaluation of informative hypothesis to psychonomic researchers. An informative hypothesis consists of inequality constraints between the parameters of interest. The relevance of informative hypothesis is evaluated thorough the Bayes factor against the unconstrained hypothesis. The calculation of Bayes factor is generally performed by means of Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. This approach is illustrated by analysis of experimental data with mice having different nighttime light conditions.
Lady Gaga's fourth CD album ARTPOP, designed by American pop artist Jeff Koons, adopted one of my illusion works, namely, Hatpin urchin, as the main inside design. This occurrence was significant for the study of visual illusion in the following three senses: first, it drew people's attention to visual illusion; second, the chosen illusion was novel; and third, for the first time in its history, visual illusion was recognized as ubiquitous.
Research Center for Applied Perceptual Science, Faculty of Design, Kyushu University, has been established in April, 2013. We aim at establishing a new research area, perceptual science. Perceptual research has often been performed as parts of different disciplines, mainly psychology, physiology, and informatics. All these disciplines will be connected closely to each other in the new interdisciplinary area. It is of vital importance to understand how humans gather and structuralize information related to the interaction between environments and humans; humans need a lot of information in order to adapt to environments. Each of our members is expected to cultivate new research fields when necessity arises, which will enable very efficient interdisciplinary cooperation.