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34 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の31件中1~31を表示しています
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特集「時間認知の解明への学際的アプローチ」
原著論文
  • Emi Hasuo, Yoshitaka Nakajima, Michiko Wakasugi, Takuya Fujioka
    34 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 2-16
    公開日: 2015/12/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Previous studies have shown that the time interval marked by the onsets of two successive pure tone bursts is perceived to be longer when the second sound marker is lengthened. The present study examined whether this phenomenon appeared in a more natural setting in which the time interval was marked by instrumental sounds with complex temporal and spectral structures. Real piano sounds and synthesized sounds that simulated either just the temporal structure of the piano sound or both its harmonic and temporal structures were used as sound markers. Lengthening the second marker increased the perceived duration of the interval, as in previous studies, but only in limited cases, and this did not occur in an experiment in which only the synthesized piano sounds were used. Thus, the effect of sound durations was weakened with the new series of sounds. Characteristics of piano sounds that were not captured in the synthesized sounds seem to have played an important role in duration perception.
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  • 氏田 麻美, 服部 稔, 坂田 省吾
    34 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 17-26
    公開日: 2015/12/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    The peak-interval procedure is an effective tool for measuring interval-timing behavior in rats. However, its stability has not been previously examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine behavioral stability across sessions when rats were trained using the peak-interval procedure. To this end, we performed 100 sessions of the peak-interval 30-s schedule with rats. Responses during 90-s probe trials were classified into 3-s bins individually and were averaged across five session-blocks in order to examine behavioral stability between sessions. Data analysis revealed the stability with a relative response rate for one block in five sessions. Furthermore, we applied the provided relative response rate to a normal distribution curve and calculated the kurtosis of the curve at each response rate and Gaussian fitting, i.e., the peak time of the curve. Examination of the stability showed a Cronbach's coefficient of α≧0.86 (R2=0.98, peak time=0.93, kurtosis=0.86). This indicates that the peak-interval procedure is an excellent reliable tool for measuring the interval-timing behavior in rats.
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  • Chihiro Saito, Steve M. J. Janssen, Tadayuki Tayama
    34 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 27-34
    公開日: 2015/12/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study examined the effect of performance feedback on interval timing. Time production tasks with start-stop procedures were performed in two experiments that consisted of three phases. Experiment 1 investigated whether the feedback effect persisted after it had been withdrawn (learning effect). Participants had to produce 10-seconds intervals in all three phases, but they received the feedback only in the second phase. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four feedback groups (accurate, 80%-feedback, 125%-feedback, no-feedback). Produced interval times shifted according to the feedback in the second and third phases, thus showing the learning effect on interval timing. Experiment 2 examined the generalization effect of feedback with longer target duration in the third phase. The feedback effect was also observed when participants had to produce 30-second intervals in the third phase, suggesting that the feedback effect can be generalized to different intervals. With biological internal clock model, these results are interpreted that feedback affects not only specific temporal representations, but also other representations in the reference memory.
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  • 田山 忠行, 邵 瓊瑤
    34 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 35-44
    公開日: 2015/12/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    It has been reported that the perceived duration of high-frequency stimuli is shorter than that of low-frequency stimuli, even though the physical duration is equal. We call this phenomenon the repetition effect on time perception. This study examined the effect using intra-modal and cross-modal tasks as well as the magnitude estimation method. In the intra-modal tasks (Exp. 1), simple visual stimuli with two different shapes were used as standard and comparison stimuli, and the repetition effect was observed even when the standard and comparison stimuli were interchanged. In the cross-modal tasks (Exp. 2), no repetition effect was observed when the visual and auditory stimuli were used as the standard and comparison stimuli, respectively, but the effect was clearly observed when auditory and visual stimuli were exchanged. These results support the auditory dominant hypothesis in time information processing. The repetition effect was explained by the inhibition hypothesis.
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  • 佐藤 駿, 中沢 仁
    34 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 45-52
    公開日: 2015/12/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Human time perception is known to be distorted by adaptation to visual motion stimuli. Many studies have investigated time perception distortion and its underlying mechanisms, but their results have been inconsistent. This may be because they have used different adaptation durations, as it is known that time duration can affect visual processing levels. Previous studies have elucidated how time perception is distorted under adaptation conditions of a few seconds or much longer, but have not investigated this distortion under shorter durations. Therefore, we investigated how time is distorted and how time perception mechanisms are affected under short adaptation durations (e.g., <2 s). We found that a short duration produced a characteristic time distortion. In addition to orientation selectivity, we confirmed a transient effect on time perception distortion. These results suggest that visual processing concerning orientation selectivity contributes to time perception, and that transient components of the adaptation effect are useful for investigating the mechanisms of adaptation-based perceived time distortion.
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研究ノート
  • Riku Asaoka, Jiro Gyoba
    34 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 53-59
    公開日: 2015/12/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recent studies have proposed that there exist components of memory specific to each sensory modality for time perception. Moreover, several studies have suggested that memory for duration is more efficient and robust for visual stimuli than auditory stimuli, while a majority of studies reported auditory dominance over vision for temporal perception. The present study, using a time reproduction task with auditory, visual, and audio-visual stimuli, tested memory components by manipulating retention delays between the end of the target presentation and the beginning of reproduction. If vision dominates sensory specific memory for duration, performance with visual stimuli should be more accurate and stable under longer delays than performance in other modality conditions. Results showed that reproduced durations were longer and more unstable under longer delays than shorter delays in all modalities. Moreover, we found that auditory stimuli were reproduced more stably and for longer than visual stimuli. These findings did not support the existence of sense-modality specific memory components or visual dominance.
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評論
  • 神前 裕, 時 暁聴, 松井 大, 新保 彰大, 藤巻 峻
    34 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 60-77
    公開日: 2015/12/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Throughout the history of research on animal learning, it has been widely acknowledged that the temporal relationship between events exerts a critical influence on the acquisition of a conditioned response. Until more recently, however, no explicit and systematic studies had investigated how animals learn the temporal relationship itself. In this article, we first review some basic functions of temporal information in classical conditioning. We then focus on one influential learning theory, temporal coding hypothesis, which posits that animals can automatically encode temporal relationships between events and express learned behaviour through integration of multiple temporal relationships acquired across contexts. After reviewing basic results supporting the temporal coding hypothesis, we present an alternative explanation of some temporal coding-like phenomena on the basis of AESOP model combined with the potentially different contributions of motivational and sensory US representations in higher-order conditioning. In a second article (Fujimaki, Shimbo, Matsui, Shi, & Kosaki, 2015), we will discuss interval timing in operant conditioning and neural substrates of timing behaviour.
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  • 藤巻 峻, 新保 彰大, 松井 大, 時 暁聴, 神前 裕
    34 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 78-90
    公開日: 2015/12/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the previous article (Kosaki, Shi, Matsui, Shimbo, & Fujimaki, 2015) we reviewed studies regarding how animals represent temporal information in classical conditioning. In this article, we first review various issues pertaining to interval timing in operant conditioning, with the main goal of providing a concise summary of procedural and theoretical developments in interval timing research. In the remainder of the article, we will review recent empirical findings and theories about the neural substrates underlying timing mechanisms both in classical and operant conditioning, and discuss how the hippocampus and striatum might contribute to different aspects of temporal information processing during conditioning. We then argue that the potentially different timing mechanisms implemented by the hippocampus and the striatum, as evidenced by the recent discovery of time cells in the hippocampus and consistent findings regarding involvement of the striatum in interval timing, might each be considered to constitute a part of functionally dissociable multiple memory systems that have been described elsewhere in the literature, particularly in the context of spatial learning and the organisation of voluntary behaviour.
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原著論文
  • 上田 祥代, 薬師神 玲子, 石口 彰
    34 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 91-100
    公開日: 2015/12/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Human observers have the ability to rapidly extract summary information about many items' features. Regarding passive perception, many studies have explored abilities such as making statistical summary representations of many different feature dimensions in various sensory modalities. In real life, however, human operators actively interact with the environment and deal with specific objects or systems. It is conceivable that operators can obtain useful information about the conditions of the operating system by accumulating information over time about the relationship between their operations and the system's responses. In particular, variance of operation-response noise is important information because it can indicate abnormal and possible high-risk conditions of the operation system. In this study, we conducted an experiment involving discriminating the variance of operation-response noise to investigate information-processing mechanisms underlying perception of such noise (Experiment 1). We also examined (Experiment 2) the effect of active observation on variance discrimination by having observers passively perceive the same visual motion stimuli as in Experiment 1. The results suggested that compared with passive observation, active observation facilitated the perception of the variance of visual motion. In addition, the just-noticeable difference first fell and then rose as pedestal variance increased, which produced a ‘dipper' function in both conditions.
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  • Hiroshi Matsui, Hideaki Kawabata
    34 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 101-111
    公開日: 2015/12/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Our visual worlds are composed of many objects. Despite the fruitful accumulation of object recognition studies, it is still unclear how we see entire visual scenes. We conducted three experiments to verify the application of Edelman's (1999) object recognition model to scene recognition. Experiment 1 showed participants' superior performance recognizing target scenes in novel views nearly located in experienced views. This was due to the combination of multiple views, but not due to comparing the novel view to the one most similar experienced view (the view combination effect). Experiment 2 indicated that these processes are elicited by the “summation” of stored multiple previous experiences, and not by comparison to a prototype. Experiment 3 was conducted to test whether these processes of scene recognition would apply to another context, by a spatial bisection task. Performance did not differ due to prior view experience. These results emphasize the difference between recognition and perceptual processes involved in bisection tasks. Thus, our results suggest that the psychological processing of visual scenes includes various phases, and may be subject to task-dependent effects.
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講演論文
日本基礎心理学会第33回大会
2014年度 日本基礎心理学会第2回フォーラム 顔研究の諸相
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