Two experiments investigated the effects of within- and between-participants contextual manipulations and those of relating to-be-remembered words and their contexts on video context-dependent effects in free recall. In Experiment 1, video contexts were manipulated within participants. Forty-eight undergraduates intentionally studied 28 unrelated words superimposed over a 5-s video context one-by-one on a computer screen. The words and 28 video contexts were randomly paired across participants. Half of the undergraduates were instructed to relate each word and its video context, and the other half were not. In Experiment 2, video contexts were manipulated between participants. Forty undergraduates intentionally studied unrelated 20 words presented as in Experiment 1 without relating words to contexts. Both the within- and between-participants manipulations produced significant context-dependent effects. Relating words and contexts produced greater effects than not relating them, but not relating condition could produce significant context-dependent effects. Further analyses of the data indicate that the video context-dependent effects reflect the one-to-one associations between respective words and their contexts. The implications of the findings were discussed.
In this study, we investigated the influence of visual information on the food preference of toddlers. Forty 2- to 3-year-old toddlers participated in two tasks: a naming task and a preference task. We prepared photographs of vegetables and fruits and then made line drawings of the photographs. We selected high and low familiarity foods based on wholesale quantity orders for the last six years. At first, we presented the high and low familiarity food images side by side. Participants were asked to choose a favorite one and say the name of the food. Results showed that the effect of the naming task on preference was different between vegetables and fruits. The visual information of color and texture might be important factors for a food's visual preference.
People prefer unambiguity to ambiguity in decision making under ambiguity. This phenomenon, known as “ambiguity aversion,” is thought to be influenced by environmental and psychological factors. The present research demonstrated the effects of choice opportunity (the availability of choice of cards), competition (the presence vs. absence of a competitor), and stimulus familiarity (familiar playing cards vs. unfamiliar tarot cards) on choice of ambiguity. Participants preferred the ambiguous deck of cards when they were allowed to choose playing cards. In the tarot-card task, however, they did not show a preference for the ambiguous deck even if they could choose the cards by themselves. The competition factor had no effect on the participants' choice. These findings indicate that choice opportunity and stimulus familiarity affect decision making under ambiguity.
The goal of our visual system is to extract the information from the retinal images that would be useful to explore the environment. Our body, which is a “tool” to explore the environment, has a variety of individual differences. Thus if our visual system is optimized to each of our bodily features the optimization must lead the individual differences in our visual perception and cognition. In this talk I reported that the evidence of such optimization by showing the stable individual differences in the stereoscopic depth perception, namely correlation between inter-ocular distance and stereoscopic depth perception.
Although an individual-differences approach takes center stage in many areas of psychology, it holds a relatively minor position in psychonomic science such that most studies focus on mean values and ignore the remarkable inter-individual variability in task performance. I argue that using human variation can be a valuable tool to unravel hidden behavioral characteristics and constrain possible theories of cognition. In particular, I suggest that by utilizing “qualitative” factors with an individual-differences approach one can elucidate the diverse range of human cognitive abilities more effectively than by simply examining individual differences in behavior.
Aesthetic sensibility is complex subjective phenomenon. It is reported that describing the properties of the sensibility for complex stimuli, e.g. visual arts or music, quantitatively is a difficult issue. To this end, building a simple psychological model is believed to be an effective measure. Semantic differential method following exploratory factor analysis has been a powerful tool for building psychological model of subjective phenomena. Several studies reported that the semantic differential method with factor analysis well captured gender and cross cultural differences in the aesthetic sensibility. However, it is unclear how individuality of the sensibility is captured by factor analysis. In this paper, we will explain how the individuality of the aesthetic sensibility is expressed by standard exploratory factor analysis and discuss its applicable limit. We then introduce more generalized methods for factorization, Tucker3 and Candecomp/Parafac for describing individuality of aesthetic sensibility. We also discuss their merits and demerits over standard factor analysis.
This note is a short report on the activity of the Young Researchers Committee of the Japanese Psychonomic Society (JPS) in 2015. As the highlighted activity of the committee in 2015, we held the satellite oral session of the 34th annual meeting of JPS. Eight finalists selected from 15 entries made presentations on their studies. One of the finalists who got the most votes was awarded as the Young Psychonomic Scientist of the Year 2015. In addition, the committee developed a portal site of laboratories of psychonomic scientists in Japan.