基礎心理学研究
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特集「質感と感性の認知科学」
原著論文
  • Yoshie Kiritani, Akane Okazaki, Kanako Motoyoshi, Ruriko Takano, Norik ...
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 4-16
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/07/20
    ジャーナル フリー

    Point makeup perceptually affects overall facial color; for example, it takes on the tinge of the eye shadow color. This study preliminarily confirmed the assimilation effect by lipstick colors and the relationship between perceptual and esthetic measures. Four typical lipstick colors, red, pink, orange, and violet, were utilized. An averaged face varied based on two factors, lightness (lighter and darker) and hue (reddish and yellowish), was examined. Twenty-four females assessed the faces in terms of perceptual hue (redness for the reddish faces and yellowness for the yellowish faces), perceptual lightness, dullness, and looking-goodness via paired comparisons. Consequently, an assimilation effect of lipstick's hue on perceptual complexion was confirmed. However, a perceptual change in lightness could not be explained by assimilation or contrast; the redness of lipsticks enhanced the perceptual lightness of complexion. Dullness negatively correlated not only with perceptual lightness but also with perceptual redness of faces and physical redness of lipsticks. Looking-goodness clearly correlated with perceptual redness of faces and each lipstick color had its own effect.

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  • Yusuke Tani, Ryo Nishijima, Takehiro Nagai, Kowa Koida, Michiteru Kita ...
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 17-29
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/08/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    We investigated what visual artists learn during sketch training by comparing 3 groups (Experts, Trainees, and Novices). In 2 tasks (congruence detection and glossiness judgment), we manipulated the specular reflection component of bumpy glossy surface images by angular rotation and asked participants to compare original and modified versions. Effects of task order and type were not significant for Experts, while congruence detection improved the glossiness judgment of Novices and reduced that of Trainees. However, congruence detection did not differ by task order or group. Thus, although sketch training did not affect visual discrimination in figural congruence and gloss, it influenced the relationship between glossiness and highlight–shading congruence.

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  • 濱田 治良, 鍋田 智広, 福田 T. スティーブ, 内海 千種, 福士 顥士, 天野 要
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 30-39
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/09/20
    ジャーナル フリー

    The group theoretical model of symmetry cognition (Hamada et al., 2016) was tested based on goodness and complexity judgments of dot patterns in a matrix framework. These patterns were divided into cyclic group patterns, determined by the number of rotations, and dihedral group patterns, determined by the number of reflection axes. The former have rotational symmetries and the latter reflectional and rotational symmetries. Undergraduates (N=104) rated the goodness or complexity of 21-dot compound patterns. The goodness and simplicity of these patterns in both their original form and with partially expanded frameworks increased monotonously with the number of transformations. Partially expanding a pattern influenced the goodness of cyclic groups with one transformation, but not the goodness of dihedral groups. Partially expanding a pattern did have an effect on the complexity of both groups, but only with a large number of transformations. For patterns with 4 transformations, the goodness and simplicity of dihedral patterns were higher than those of cyclic group patterns. Furthermore, grouping effects influenced complexity but not goodness judgments.

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  • 權 眞煥, 吉野 淳也, 高佐原 舞, 中内 茂樹, 坂本 真樹
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 40-49
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/10/18
    ジャーナル フリー

    Many people prefer products made with natural rather than artificial materials, and favor luxury products with high social value. In this study, we examined whether similarities and differences between “naturalness” and “luxuriousness” manifested in the onomatopoeic expressions used in texture evaluation. We used pearls and gold leaf, which have different market values depending on grade. Participants were asked to visually evaluate the “naturalness” and “luxuriousness” of these items through a semantic differential technique and onomatopoeic expressions. We found that it was difficult for non-experts to distinguish which item actually had the highest value, but there was a positive correlation between “naturalness” and “luxuriousness” perceptions. Regarding the onomatopoeia results, when a material was perceived as artificial, participants described its texture with visual onomatopoeia. However, when the material was perceived as natural, tactile as well as visual onomatopoeias were used to describe texture. Based on these results, we suggest that knowledge based on of tactile experience may have influenced the visual perception of “naturalness” and “luxuriousness.”

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研究ノート
  • 中 響子, 米満 文哉, 山田 祐樹
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 50-55
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/09/20
    ジャーナル フリー

    Facial attractiveness is influenced by various personal and environmental factors. The present study investigated whether the gender environment surrounding observers affected facial attractiveness judgments. Students at single-gender (58 females) and mixed-gender (59 males and 46 females) universities participated in the experiment. Each of 15 male or female faces was morphed, respectively, with a female or male averaged face derived from the other 14 female and male faces, resulting in feminized and masculinized faces. Observers were simultaneously presented with one masculinized and one feminized morphed face and asked to judge which was more attractive. The results showed that students at a women's university judged feminized male faces as significantly more attractive than did students in a coeducational university. The present findings suggest that adaptation to female faces in a single-gender environment increases the processing fluency of female faces, therefore inducing higher preference.

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  • 澤山 正貴, 岡部 誠, 西田 眞也, 土橋 宜典
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 56-65
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/09/20
    ジャーナル フリー

    This research note reviews experimental methods to elucidate the visual processing underlying material perception, and considers how to generate experimental stimuli of three-dimensional shapes for the experiments. For generation of a computer graphics image of a three-dimensional object, it has been widely known that its shape features can affect the material appearance of the object. However, it is not established how to systematically control the shape features to investigate the effect. Here we suggest to utilize texture synthesis algorithms. Specifically, we used a height map of a three-dimensional object as a source image, and synthesized a novel height map by using a texture synthesis algorithm. We tested three algorithms to generate the height maps; i) synthesis based on image statistics, ii) example-based synthesis, and iii) synthesis using a convolutional neural network. We discuss how effective the texture synthesis algorithms are to investigate the effect of the shape features on the material perception.

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  • 出澤 正德
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 66-74
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/10/31
    ジャーナル フリー

    When we look at an object such as a sphere or a cylinder, we often perceive a solid object as being three-dimensional and filled with a medium, even if we can only see its frontal surface. This is known as volume perception, which was originally discovered by observing illusory object perception associated with binocular viewing. Following this investigation, “binocularly unpaired regions” or “gradually appearing and disappearing parts” were found to play important roles in volume perception. In addition, transparent volumetric illusory object perception in which an enclosed partial space is filled with a transparent medium was also discovered; however, the perceptual mechanisms are not yet clear. This article describes the volume perception research that has been conducted to date.

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評論
  • 吉本 早苗
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 75-84
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/05/11
    ジャーナル フリー

    Time-varying patterns such as flickering lights can cause discomfort and induce seizures in photosensitive observers. An understanding of the temporal characteristics of visual discomfort is therefore important from both scientific and practical viewpoints. The purpose of this paper is to review existing studies on the impact of temporal characteristics on discomfort. Two related factors have been suggested as predictors of discomfort caused by time-varying patterns: (1) excessive contrast energy at the medium temporal frequencies to which the visual system is generally most sensitive, and (2) temporal deviations from the natural (1/f ) statistical characteristic. These effects mirror the visual discomfort caused by spatial patterns, in some ways but not all. The interaction between spatial and temporal parameters needs to be investigated to clarify the factors underlying visual discomfort.

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研究ノート
  • 岡本 安晴
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 85-91
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    ジャーナル フリー

    Simulation of experiments using methods of constant stimuli demonstrated that from a statistical perspective the three- or four-category (3AFC or 4AFC) methods are preferable to the two-category (2AFC) method. Point estimates of the slope and position parameters, sigma and mu, respectively, of psychometric functions of cumulative normal distributions were calculated using Bayesian analysis of the data generated by simulation experiments using methods of constant stimuli. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) of estimates of sigma for the two-category method were approximately 1.4 times those for the three- or four-category methods. The just noticeable difference is given by a constant time of sigma. RMSEs of estimates of mu corresponding to the point of subjective equality were approximately of the same magnitude in the two- and four-categories methods, but those for the three-category method was about three fourths of those for the two- or four-category methods.

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書評
講演論文
日本基礎心理学会第35 回大会
シンポジウム1:ロービジョンからの挑戦
シンポジウム2:基礎心理学のアイデンティティ
シンポシウム3:多感覚知覚研究の最前線
  • 田中 章浩
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 119
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 北川 智利
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 120-124
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    ジャーナル フリー

    For guiding our body movements in the environment, it is essential that we perceive precise temporal relationship between our own body movements and those sensory effects. The present study examined how voluntary movements affect perceptual sensitivity to the temporal disparity between movement-related somatosensory and auditory events. In the voluntary condition, participants voluntarily tap a button and a noise burst was presented at various onset asynchronies relative to the button tap. The participants made either ‘sound-first’ or ‘touch-first’ responses. We found that the performance of temporal order judgment (TOJ) in the voluntary condition was significantly better than that when their finger was passively stimulated (passive condition). Furthermore, when three noise bursts were presented before the target burst with regular intervals (predictable condition) and when the participant's finger was moved passively to press the button (involuntary condition), the performance was not improved from the passive condition. These results suggest that the improvement in sensitivity to temporal disparity between somatosensory and auditory events caused by the voluntary body movements cannot be attributed to sensory-based prediction and kinesthetic cues. Rather, the prediction from the efference copy of the motor command (motor-based prediction) would be crucial for improving the temporal sensitivity.

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  • 日髙 聡太
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 125-128
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    ジャーナル フリー

    Multisensory studies have mainly focused on the manner of integration processes. We investigated learning mechanisms underlying the integration, and found that 3-minutes adaptation could establish a new multisensory relationship between arbitrary sounds and visual motion information even for the adults' brain. We also demonstrated the inhibitory aspect of multisensory interaction: Tactile or auditory stimulation could suppress the perception of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we showed that the manner of multisensory interaction differed depending on the degree of autistic traits among general population. These findings would contribute to further understandings of underlying mechanisms of multisensory interaction.

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  • 鳴海 拓志
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 129-132
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    ジャーナル フリー

    Media technologies for multi-sensory feedbacks recently achieved a major breakthrough by utilizing cross-modal interactions based on knowledge of psychology and cognitive science. By changing sensory perception with these technologies, behaviors, impressions, and recognition of our experiences can be modified dramatically. This paper introduces such novel techniques that augment our senses, emotions, behaviors and cognitions, and discusses the future possibility of interaction between multi-sensory perception research and engineering.

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2 0 1 6 年度日本基礎心理学会第2 回フォーラム 身体と知覚・認知
解説
  • 時田 みどり
    36 巻 (2017) 1 号 p. 163-172
    公開日: 2017/12/07
    ジャーナル フリー

    An ideal observer is theoretical device that performs a given task in an optimal manner provided the available information and some specified constraints. Comparing the performance of the ideal observer to that of a test observer in the given task, one can infer characteristics and/or deficit in a system of the test observer. Ideal observer theory has been applied to a wide range of problems, such as perception, object recognition, category learning, memory, attention, decision-making, and others. Recent application of Bayesian statistical theory enables us to investigate perceptual processes in more naturalistic and complicated scene and phenomena and to explore optical learning processes in many areas.

    Here I first summarize the basic concepts and logic of ideal observer analysis and then briefly describe an application to a simple perceptual task.

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