Point makeup perceptually affects overall facial color; for example, it takes on the tinge of the eye shadow color. This study preliminarily confirmed the assimilation effect by lipstick colors and the relationship between perceptual and esthetic measures. Four typical lipstick colors, red, pink, orange, and violet, were utilized. An averaged face varied based on two factors, lightness (lighter and darker) and hue (reddish and yellowish), was examined. Twenty-four females assessed the faces in terms of perceptual hue (redness for the reddish faces and yellowness for the yellowish faces), perceptual lightness, dullness, and looking-goodness via paired comparisons. Consequently, an assimilation effect of lipstick's hue on perceptual complexion was confirmed. However, a perceptual change in lightness could not be explained by assimilation or contrast; the redness of lipsticks enhanced the perceptual lightness of complexion. Dullness negatively correlated not only with perceptual lightness but also with perceptual redness of faces and physical redness of lipsticks. Looking-goodness clearly correlated with perceptual redness of faces and each lipstick color had its own effect.
We investigated what visual artists learn during sketch training by comparing 3 groups (Experts, Trainees, and Novices). In 2 tasks (congruence detection and glossiness judgment), we manipulated the specular reflection component of bumpy glossy surface images by angular rotation and asked participants to compare original and modified versions. Effects of task order and type were not significant for Experts, while congruence detection improved the glossiness judgment of Novices and reduced that of Trainees. However, congruence detection did not differ by task order or group. Thus, although sketch training did not affect visual discrimination in figural congruence and gloss, it influenced the relationship between glossiness and highlight–shading congruence.
The group theoretical model of symmetry cognition (Hamada et al., 2016) was tested based on goodness and complexity judgments of dot patterns in a matrix framework. These patterns were divided into cyclic group patterns, determined by the number of rotations, and dihedral group patterns, determined by the number of reflection axes. The former have rotational symmetries and the latter reflectional and rotational symmetries. Undergraduates (N=104) rated the goodness or complexity of 21-dot compound patterns. The goodness and simplicity of these patterns in both their original form and with partially expanded frameworks increased monotonously with the number of transformations. Partially expanding a pattern influenced the goodness of cyclic groups with one transformation, but not the goodness of dihedral groups. Partially expanding a pattern did have an effect on the complexity of both groups, but only with a large number of transformations. For patterns with 4 transformations, the goodness and simplicity of dihedral patterns were higher than those of cyclic group patterns. Furthermore, grouping effects influenced complexity but not goodness judgments.
Many people prefer products made with natural rather than artificial materials, and favor luxury products with high social value. In this study, we examined whether similarities and differences between “naturalness” and “luxuriousness” manifested in the onomatopoeic expressions used in texture evaluation. We used pearls and gold leaf, which have different market values depending on grade. Participants were asked to visually evaluate the “naturalness” and “luxuriousness” of these items through a semantic differential technique and onomatopoeic expressions. We found that it was difficult for non-experts to distinguish which item actually had the highest value, but there was a positive correlation between “naturalness” and “luxuriousness” perceptions. Regarding the onomatopoeia results, when a material was perceived as artificial, participants described its texture with visual onomatopoeia. However, when the material was perceived as natural, tactile as well as visual onomatopoeias were used to describe texture. Based on these results, we suggest that knowledge based on of tactile experience may have influenced the visual perception of “naturalness” and “luxuriousness.”
Facial attractiveness is influenced by various personal and environmental factors. The present study investigated whether the gender environment surrounding observers affected facial attractiveness judgments. Students at single-gender (58 females) and mixed-gender (59 males and 46 females) universities participated in the experiment. Each of 15 male or female faces was morphed, respectively, with a female or male averaged face derived from the other 14 female and male faces, resulting in feminized and masculinized faces. Observers were simultaneously presented with one masculinized and one feminized morphed face and asked to judge which was more attractive. The results showed that students at a women's university judged feminized male faces as significantly more attractive than did students in a coeducational university. The present findings suggest that adaptation to female faces in a single-gender environment increases the processing fluency of female faces, therefore inducing higher preference.
This research note reviews experimental methods to elucidate the visual processing underlying material perception, and considers how to generate experimental stimuli of three-dimensional shapes for the experiments. For generation of a computer graphics image of a three-dimensional object, it has been widely known that its shape features can affect the material appearance of the object. However, it is not established how to systematically control the shape features to investigate the effect. Here we suggest to utilize texture synthesis algorithms. Specifically, we used a height map of a three-dimensional object as a source image, and synthesized a novel height map by using a texture synthesis algorithm. We tested three algorithms to generate the height maps; i) synthesis based on image statistics, ii) example-based synthesis, and iii) synthesis using a convolutional neural network. We discuss how effective the texture synthesis algorithms are to investigate the effect of the shape features on the material perception.
When we look at an object such as a sphere or a cylinder, we often perceive a solid object as being three-dimensional and filled with a medium, even if we can only see its frontal surface. This is known as volume perception, which was originally discovered by observing illusory object perception associated with binocular viewing. Following this investigation, “binocularly unpaired regions” or “gradually appearing and disappearing parts” were found to play important roles in volume perception. In addition, transparent volumetric illusory object perception in which an enclosed partial space is filled with a transparent medium was also discovered; however, the perceptual mechanisms are not yet clear. This article describes the volume perception research that has been conducted to date.
Time-varying patterns such as flickering lights can cause discomfort and induce seizures in photosensitive observers. An understanding of the temporal characteristics of visual discomfort is therefore important from both scientific and practical viewpoints. The purpose of this paper is to review existing studies on the impact of temporal characteristics on discomfort. Two related factors have been suggested as predictors of discomfort caused by time-varying patterns: (1) excessive contrast energy at the medium temporal frequencies to which the visual system is generally most sensitive, and (2) temporal deviations from the natural (1/f ) statistical characteristic. These effects mirror the visual discomfort caused by spatial patterns, in some ways but not all. The interaction between spatial and temporal parameters needs to be investigated to clarify the factors underlying visual discomfort.
Simulation of experiments using methods of constant stimuli demonstrated that from a statistical perspective the three- or four-category (3AFC or 4AFC) methods are preferable to the two-category (2AFC) method. Point estimates of the slope and position parameters, sigma and mu, respectively, of psychometric functions of cumulative normal distributions were calculated using Bayesian analysis of the data generated by simulation experiments using methods of constant stimuli. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) of estimates of sigma for the two-category method were approximately 1.4 times those for the three- or four-category methods. The just noticeable difference is given by a constant time of sigma. RMSEs of estimates of mu corresponding to the point of subjective equality were approximately of the same magnitude in the two- and four-categories methods, but those for the three-category method was about three fourths of those for the two- or four-category methods.
Some eye diseases and brain damage reduce patients' vision related quality of life (QOL). In Japan, the National Insurance System started the coverage of low vision care (LVC) at hospitals in 2012. Recently, LVC has become more common in ophthalmology. The aim of LVC is to regain patients' QOL along with medical treatment by explaining them about the reasons behind their low vision and providing low vision aids and local support resources etc. For clarifying patients' vision problems it need to refer to medical data and examine their vision by conducting small instant experiments. In this process basic research knowledge contributes to this clinical investigation. In particular, the findings of psychophysics experiments on reading, such as MNREAD-J, are very valuable for LVC. This essay introduces the scientific process of LVC and the contribution of basic research to the clinical treatment of LVC.
The visually-impaired population in Japan is about 1.6 million, and almost 90% of these have low vision but not blindness. We focused on writing difficulty in individuals with low vision and conducted experiments to determine how deterioration of visual function affects handwriting performance. The main results were as follows. 1) The visual characteristics associated with risk of writing difficulty are slow maximum reading speed, large critical print size, and the presence of a central scotoma within 10 degrees of radius. 2) The visual angle needed for writing is slightly larger than that needed for reading. 3) Simple writing tasks, such as filling in a name or address, do not require as much size as for reading. The basic findings of this study can be used in a rehabilitative intervention for individuals with low vision.
Contrast sensitivity (CS) testing provides useful information about visual impairment to low vision practitioners. CS testing has been indicated to be able to predict patients' ability to perform real-world tasks such as space navigation. In this short article, we focus on stair descent, an important component of the space navigation. Is the CS for walking downstairs similar to that for detecting stairs? One of our recent findings showed that the CS for the walking speed of stair descent was higher than the CS for detecting stairs. This result suggests that people with reduced CS may have difficulty in climbing down stairs, even though they are able to detect the stairs.
Four patients during my time as an inexperienced orientation and mobility specialist showed me the difficulties that people with peripheral visual field loss face while walking. It is important and necessary for persons with peripheral visual field loss to be able to observe distant people and objects and to acquire as much visual information as possible while walking. This is not enough, however, to ensure safe and comfortable walking; it is necessary to have good visual scanning skills and walking stick (white cane) techniques. These abilities can be improved by orientation and mobility specialists who are trained at the National Rehabilitation Center for Persons with Disabilities and the Japan Light House.
The need for the design of human interaction arose since the relationship between human manipulation on tools and their response had become ambiguous along with the developments of tools and machines. The goal of human interface design is transparency. The transparency is a condition in which a user can concentrate to solve a target problem, without being aware of the tool itself, and the tool feels like a part of the user's body. However, the realization of the transparency has been only discussed as idealistic theory, and the design methods have not been discussed enough. In this paper, we introduce “dummy cursor experiment” and “sense of self-ownership.” We also consider transparency of tools, extension of body, and differences between the animation for expression and the animation for manipulation on user interface design.
For guiding our body movements in the environment, it is essential that we perceive precise temporal relationship between our own body movements and those sensory effects. The present study examined how voluntary movements affect perceptual sensitivity to the temporal disparity between movement-related somatosensory and auditory events. In the voluntary condition, participants voluntarily tap a button and a noise burst was presented at various onset asynchronies relative to the button tap. The participants made either ‘sound-first’ or ‘touch-first’ responses. We found that the performance of temporal order judgment (TOJ) in the voluntary condition was significantly better than that when their finger was passively stimulated (passive condition). Furthermore, when three noise bursts were presented before the target burst with regular intervals (predictable condition) and when the participant's finger was moved passively to press the button (involuntary condition), the performance was not improved from the passive condition. These results suggest that the improvement in sensitivity to temporal disparity between somatosensory and auditory events caused by the voluntary body movements cannot be attributed to sensory-based prediction and kinesthetic cues. Rather, the prediction from the efference copy of the motor command (motor-based prediction) would be crucial for improving the temporal sensitivity.
Multisensory studies have mainly focused on the manner of integration processes. We investigated learning mechanisms underlying the integration, and found that 3-minutes adaptation could establish a new multisensory relationship between arbitrary sounds and visual motion information even for the adults' brain. We also demonstrated the inhibitory aspect of multisensory interaction: Tactile or auditory stimulation could suppress the perception of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we showed that the manner of multisensory interaction differed depending on the degree of autistic traits among general population. These findings would contribute to further understandings of underlying mechanisms of multisensory interaction.
Media technologies for multi-sensory feedbacks recently achieved a major breakthrough by utilizing cross-modal interactions based on knowledge of psychology and cognitive science. By changing sensory perception with these technologies, behaviors, impressions, and recognition of our experiences can be modified dramatically. This paper introduces such novel techniques that augment our senses, emotions, behaviors and cognitions, and discusses the future possibility of interaction between multi-sensory perception research and engineering.
Touch, the sensation processed by the somatosensory system, is closely related to the body state. Due to the spatiotemporal characteristics of the somatosensory receptors and the structural constraints of the body, we have sometimes experienced with sensory illusions in touch as well as vision. In this paper, I introduce several techniques to generate illusory sensations which can be exploited to develop information displays. I review the previous findings of our experiments of the changes in the haptic perception or body image using the techniques.
Almost all the amputees feel the existence of the amputated limb after limb amputation, which is known to be phantom limb. Many amputees can move and control their phantom limb at their will and they report that they receive sensory feedback of the phantom limb while phantom limb moving. Further, approximately 50–80% of them have pain on the amputated limb, phantom limb pain. A possible mechanism for phantom limb is that the information of the body in the amputee's brain is not updated after amputation for some reason, causing this illusory feeling of the amputated limb. This phenomenon suggests that our body perception depends largely on the body information in the brain formed from sensory information of multimodal sensors in the body. For understanding the mechanism of our perceptual system, to examine the mismatch between actual sensory information in the environment and our perception is very useful. Thus, to elucidate the phantom limb will provide us with rich information to help understand the mechanism of our body perception.
Many reports have associated aging with deterioration in a number of cognitive functions. These reports have also demonstrated the beneficial effect of physical fitness on cognitive function, especially executive function. Here, studies related to cognitive-physical association in older adults are reviewed and I also report our recent studies for such association. In our study, we utilized task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The mechanism of the relationship between physical fitness and cognitive function could be further investigated by functional brain network.
Understanding another's behavior and how other people see the world is one of the skills necessary for us to interact in the dynamic and fluid social world we live in. In this talk, two aspects of body perception from two different views in atypical development are discussed. The first view observes the body and bodily motion from the outside; we report our series of electrophysiological and behavioral studies on action perception in children with atypical development. The second view observes the body from the inside; we report a series of studies on visual perspective-taking where the ability to understand takes into account what and how the subjects see.
An ideal observer is theoretical device that performs a given task in an optimal manner provided the available information and some specified constraints. Comparing the performance of the ideal observer to that of a test observer in the given task, one can infer characteristics and/or deficit in a system of the test observer. Ideal observer theory has been applied to a wide range of problems, such as perception, object recognition, category learning, memory, attention, decision-making, and others. Recent application of Bayesian statistical theory enables us to investigate perceptual processes in more naturalistic and complicated scene and phenomena and to explore optical learning processes in many areas.
Here I first summarize the basic concepts and logic of ideal observer analysis and then briefly describe an application to a simple perceptual task.
This is a short attendance report of the annual meeting of Vision Sciences Society in this year. This conference was held in Florida, USA every year and gathered more than 2,000 researchers, including visual psychophysics, neuroscience, computer vision, and cognitive psychology, from around the world. In this year, there were 216 oral presentations and 1173 poster presentations for 5 days. In this report, I briefly introduced this conference and its fascinations.
This short note is a report on “18th Annual International Multisensory Research Forum”. The forum was held at Vanderbilt University, located in Nashville, Tennessee, and organized by Professor Mark T. Wallace. Symposiums by faculties mainly accounted for the forum, which was useful to understand the research interest of each laboratory.