We investigated what visual artists learn during sketch training by comparing 3 groups (Experts, Trainees, and Novices). In 2 tasks (congruence detection and glossiness judgment), we manipulated the specular reflection component of bumpy glossy surface images by angular rotation and asked participants to compare original and modified versions. Effects of task order and type were not significant for Experts, while congruence detection improved the glossiness judgment of Novices and reduced that of Trainees. However, congruence detection did not differ by task order or group. Thus, although sketch training did not affect visual discrimination in figural congruence and gloss, it influenced the relationship between glossiness and highlight–shading congruence.
Point makeup perceptually affects overall facial color; for example, it takes on the tinge of the eye shadow color. This study preliminarily confirmed the assimilation effect by lipstick colors and the relationship between perceptual and esthetic measures. Four typical lipstick colors, red, pink, orange, and violet, were utilized. An averaged face varied based on two factors, lightness (lighter and darker) and hue (reddish and yellowish), was examined. Twenty-four females assessed the faces in terms of perceptual hue (redness for the reddish faces and yellowness for the yellowish faces), perceptual lightness, dullness, and looking-goodness via paired comparisons. Consequently, an assimilation effect of lipstick's hue on perceptual complexion was confirmed. However, a perceptual change in lightness could not be explained by assimilation or contrast; the redness of lipsticks enhanced the perceptual lightness of complexion. Dullness negatively correlated not only with perceptual lightness but also with perceptual redness of faces and physical redness of lipsticks. Looking-goodness clearly correlated with perceptual redness of faces and each lipstick color had its own effect.
Time-varying patterns such as flickering lights can cause discomfort and induce seizures in photosensitive observers. An understanding of the temporal characteristics of visual discomfort is therefore important from both scientific and practical viewpoints. The purpose of this paper is to review existing studies on the impact of temporal characteristics on discomfort. Two related factors have been suggested as predictors of discomfort caused by time-varying patterns: (1) excessive contrast energy at the medium temporal frequencies to which the visual system is generally most sensitive, and (2) temporal deviations from the natural (1/f) statistical characteristic. These effects mirror the visual discomfort caused by spatial patterns, in some ways but not all. The interaction between spatial and temporal parameters needs to be investigated to clarify the factors underlying visual discomfort.