RADIOISOTOPES
Online ISSN : 1884-4111
Print ISSN : 0033-8303
ISSN-L : 0033-8303
Volume 15 , Issue 6
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Susumu NISHIMURA, Zin'ichiro HATUDA, Testuji ASAYAMA
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 289-294
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Some radioactive rocks or minerals show radioactive disequilibrium, because of the various geochemical processes to which they have been subjected. In any gain or loss of radioactive isotopes has occurred within the last period of about 106 years, the rock will be in a state of radioactive disequilibrium. In this case, the method described in the first report will be inadequate. For the purpose of finding a proper method for studying radioactive disequilibrium of samples, the methods using a radioscope, alpha-scintillation counter and gamma-ray spectrometer were re-examined. As the result, combination of gamma-ray spectrometry with alpha-ray counting by a scintillation counter was found to be appropriate for the purpose.
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  • Hideo TESHIMA
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 295-300
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A strong “memory” effect was found after the measurement of 14CO2 with a NE 102 plastic phosphor counting cell.
    Experimental tests with thin NE 102 strips showed that the residual radioactivity was due to the absorption of 14CO2 into the plastic phosphor and desorption was diffusion controlled in the solid phase. A diffusion coefficient of 13.5×10-8cm2/sec was calculated from the experimental desorption data at 28°C.
    A new counting cell was designed based on the diffusion data. The counting rates of nine separate samples prepared from the same specific activity source were able to be reproduced to ±0.35%.
    This cell was successfully adapted to the counting of 14CO2 in a self diffusion study.
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  • Nobuhiko NOGUCHI, Masataka NOMURA
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 301-309
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A X-ray absorption method by bremsstrahlung from a tritium-zirconium source (2.5Ci) was studied as a rapid method for the estimation of sulfur content in fuel oil.
    Intensity of a transmitted radiation was measured by means of a MX-118 (Mullard Co.) Geiger Müller counter and staler. A constant volume method was adopted as a calibration from and a polypropyrene film ponch (5oμ in thickness) was utilized for a sample vessel. The sulfur content of the sample was calculated upon the correction procedures of density, temperature and carbon-hydrogen mass ratio, and counting rates, by the X-ray counting rate of standard aluminium plate as well as by the β-ray counting rate of standard pure hydrocarbon, n-heptane.
    The carbon-hydrogen mass ratio of the sample was determined on the basis of a strontium 90-β radiation source (96 μ Ci) by the same basic apparatus.
    The results obtained were as follows:
    1) All of fuel oil containing sulfur content up to 5% are applicable.
    2) Time required for determination in for around 10 to 15 minutes, including calculation.
    3) Accuracy on standard samples containing less than 5% of sulfur content be approximately 1.7% of sulfur concentration and also reproducibility in fuel oil less than 5% of sulfur content be about 1.3% of sulfur concentration.
    Accuracy and presision on this method can be compared with those of the burning-tube (using oxvgen gas as a burning gas) or of the bomb-sulfur method, or can be estimated still more. Moreover, in this method, the above presision is able to be maintained by staffs even if they are the skilled or the semiskilled.
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  • Masao KATO, Otomaru SATO
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 310-316
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the experiment on measurement of flow time on the Sorachi River carried out in 1961 the authors used the sudden injection and peak to peak method and calculated mean velocity of radioactive water body in each reach tested. When sorption loss of tracer material occurs with this method, flow curve comes to be delayed, resulting in minus error in flow velocity. Having respect to this matter the authors examined integrated values of flow curves obtained through the experiment which was made by using Na-24 as a radiotracer. Only a few per cent or less in sorption loss were recognized in the most sub-reaches, but 10 per cent or more in a few sub-reaches.
    Therefore, in the following term experiment carried out on the same river in 1963, the authors chose such some reaches as sorption loss was estimated to be large and applied the double tracer method using Na-24 or Br-82 together with tritium as a standard in order to examine the extent of sorption loss, and at the same time tried to measure lateral diffusion of tracer as well as discharge of the river stream by means of isotope dilution method.
    The whole reach tested, as shown in Fig. 1, was about 20km in length from the Nishitappu River Junction to the Sorachi Bridge, and three test runs, as shown in Table 1, were performed on three sub-reaches sectioned within the whole reach during September 5 th to 8 th. Combinations and amounts of double tracers were such as 43 mCi of Na-24 and 33Ci of tritium for the first run, 43.6 mCi of Br-82 and 33 Ci of tritium for the second and 46 mCi of Br-82 and 33 Ci of tritium for the third.
    Sudden injections of radiotracer solutions were made at the center of flow. At each sampling station, one litre samples were removed from three points of the river stream, center of flow and vicinities to both banks. Also, at these points two or three under water detectors were set and thereby flow curves were recorded directly and automatically.
    Furthermore, the integration method, a modification of the isotope dilution method, for measuring discharge which consists in the constant pumping of sample water and in the continuous measurement of the radioactivity of sample water in the reservoir of definite geometry was tried at the same three points mentioned above, so as to examine the change of flow rate across the river stream.
    The results derived from such measurements are the following:
    (1) Very little sorption loss was recognized in any case with
    Br-82. But, with Na-24 sorption loss of ten per cent was found after traveling through the river channel for about 6 km.
    (2) As for the lateral diffusion, it was found that the effect of channel condition is much significant and mixing length is usually
    7 to 10 km in case of as larage discharge as about 30 ton/sec.
    (3) For measuring the discharge by means of the integration method, some difficulties were experienced in keeping the flow rate of sample water constant. Further elaboration in the design of the device will make the method useful, however, it may at any rate need much amount of radiotracer in order to make error small.
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  • Masatoshi KOBAYASHI, Yasuhiro HORIGUCHI, Hamaji SUZUKI, Kiyoshi NAKAJI ...
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 317-324
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The tracer experiments to measure the velocity, flow rate and the dilution rate were carried out on the River Kandagawa and the River Nipparagawa. Small quantities of 24Na or 82Br solutions were injected into the rivers as a“pulse”together with rather large quantities of nonradioactive solution, or prior to the continuous injection of the nonradioactive tracer solution.
    The aim of such a double tracer technique in a broad sense is 1) to compare the advantages and the disadvantages of the radioactive tracer method and the nonradioactive tracer method, and 2) to examine the sorption loss of the tracer by using different elements at the same time. The counting efficiencies of various methods were also examined as well as the effectiveness of the total counting method.
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  • Masakazu SAKAGUCHI, Takakuni HIRABAYASHI, Isao AMAGAI
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 325-329
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The mechanism of the diffusion of sulfur atom from the atmosphere of hydrogen sulfied or hydrogen sulfide mixed with other gases into zinc sulfide during the firing has been investigated by a tracer technique using H235 S. The results were as follows. In the pure hydrogen sulfide atmosphere, the activation energy of the diffusion of sulfur atom was 60 kcal/mol above 1, 000°C and 5 kcal/mol below 1, 000°C. In the mixed atmosphere of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride, the rate of the diffusion of sulfur atom decreased with the increase of partial pressure of hydrogen chloride on the firing at 500°C, while it increased remarkably as adding a small amount of hydrogen chloride in the hydrogen sulfide atmosphere on the firing at 1, 050°C. When the hydrogen was added, the rate slightly changed with the partial pressure of hydrogen.
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  • Dairokuro YASHIRO, Teruyuki NAITO
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 330-334
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: December 13, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Acetylene was polymerized by the irradiation with the γ-rays from 60Co under pressure in the range from 3.5 to 16 atm (absolute) and in the temperature range from 30 to 100°C.
    The value of G
    (-C2H2) for the over-all reaction was nearly constant in these range, ( ≅80) whilst G (C6H6) decreased from 15 to 6 with increasing acetylene pressure, and G (-C2H2) for polymer formation increased from 25 to 60 with increasing pressure.
    The apparent activation energy for both reactions were very small, and the rates were proportional to the 0.8 th order of dose rate.
    G (C6H6) was not influenced by variation of surface-volume ratio of reaction vessel. G (diacetylene) was less than 1 and approximately proportional to G (C6H6) in these range.
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  • Yoshiro ONOZAWA
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 335-339
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Three kinds of rice seed which are different in phosphorus content: A (normal), B (70 per cent of P-content to the A) and C (54 per cent), were soaked with 32P solution for 14 days.
    Dose was 81μCi/seed in all cases, and experiment was reproduced twice.
    Amount of 32P incorporated into seeds was not so affected by the difference of their phosphorus levels.
    In R1 generation, it was found that low level of phosphorus content promotes the physiological damages in seedling stage, especially the decreasing survival rates. However, there was not so much difference among the seed fertilities of these three kinds of materials.
    On the chlorophyll mutation observed in R2 generation, material A and material B showed a same value in mutation rates per R1 ear, or B was rather lower than A, but material C, the lowest phosphorus content, gave very high mutation rate in either of repeated experiments, and it was almost two times as that of material A.
    It has also been shown that mutations induced in material C deviate from those induced in material A or B in the spectrum, and some mutations in material C have large chimera size within R1 plant.
    From these results, it is concluded that 32P treatment of such seed being sufficiently low phosphorus content has a possibility to increase mutation frequency.
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  • Mareichi TOYOHARA, Akiyo SHIGEMATSU
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 340-345
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It was already proved that the uptake of isoniazide (INH) was decreased remarkably in INH-resistant tubercle bacilli than in INH-sensitive tubercle becilli from the experiments by use of the radioactive isoniazide.
    It is not, however, known whether the difference of the uptake of streptomycin (SM) exists or not between SM sensitive tubercle bacilli and SM-resistant tubercle bacilli. Then SM-uptake to both strains in Dubos media was observed under the various conditions by use of SM-T which was labelled with 3H-gas.
    As shown in the figures and the tables in the article, SM-uptake of SM-resistant tubercle bacilli was a little less than that of SM-sensitive bacilli, but a large quantity of radioactivity was proved in the early stage touching with SM in media in the cell bodies of both the SM-sensitive strain and the resistant one.
    These results indicate that it is difficult to conclude the decrease of permeability of SM to cell walls in the SM-resistant strain, and the mechanism of resistance to SM is rather different with that of resistance to INH.
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  • Osamu MASTUOKA, Emiko MURAMATSU
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 346-353
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    gas flow sandwich type G-M tube apparatus connected to anticoincidence circuit, log rate meter and recorder was employed for 14CO2 flow detection system. The new technique was developed, which records the integral radioactivity of expired 14CO2 on chart paper by the transient zero drift in rate meter.
    Beckman Medical Gas Analyzer LB-1 the principle of which is based on infra-red absorption was used for stable CO2 flow detection.
    Air supply to testing mouse was carried out by compressed air set in the flow rate of 80 ml/min.
    About 3, 000 cpm at the maximum rate of radioactivity in expired air following the injection of 4 μCi/mouse 14C-glucose was detected by the above apparatus under the back ground count of about 30 cpm.
    Dimensional effect of animal chamber on respiratory 14CO2 pattern was studied and optimum chamber was designed.
    The several problems which will affect the respiratory 14CO2 patterns were studied; fasting, carrier addition, route of administration, difference of labelling position and possibility of multiple application of 14C-glucose test were discussed.
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  • Kin-ichi HISADA, Tatsunosuke HIRAKI, Satoru OHBA, Masamichi MATSUDAIRA
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 354-358
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For practical convenience a new technique was developed in order to perform an isosensitive scan and bi-laminoscans simultaneously at one scanning. The essential features are the addition of two oblique placed detectors to the two opposed detectors system and the mode to mix the signals additively from each detector in three combinations, recording them simultaneously with four heads of mechanical multidot tapper, two sheets of laminoscan upper and lower, one isosensitive scan and one conventional anterior scan.
    This system can be a help to disclose the smaller lesions in the dimensionally thick organ.
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  • Fumio KINOSHITA, Akira MAEKAWA, Mitsuya YASUDA, Yasushi HICHIRI, Juro ...
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 359-370
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: September 07, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We reported on the 131I-thyroid uptake rate in various thyroid disorders more than ten years ago, but method and instrument of thyroid uptake was greatly improved ever since. This report is the results of 131I thyroid uptake rate in 400 cases of euthyroid and 300 cases of hyperthyroid, 20 cases of hypothyroid, 230 cases of non toxic diffuse goiter, 140 cases of non toxic nodular goiter, 30 cases of malignant goiter, 20 cases of subacute thyroiditis and 50 cases of chronic thyroiditis.
    In 400 cases of euthyroid and 300 cases of hyperthyroid, no significant differences of 131I thyroid uptake rate was seen depending on the sex, age and season of the subjects.
    Lower 24 hour uptake than 3 or s hour uptake was seen in 7.3% of euthyroid cases, 30.0% of hyperthyroid cases, 7.9% of cases of non toxic diffuse goiter and 5.5% of cases of non toxic nodular goiter.
    When 20% was used as the upper limit of normal for 3 hr uptake value, the diagnostic error was 2.8%. When 35 or 40% and 45% were used as the upper limits for s and 24 hr uptake respectively, the respective diagnostic errors were 1.8 and 2.4%.
    In 150 cases of hyperthyroidism successfully treated with 131I, 131I thyroid uptake after treatment was 1.4-70. 9 (average 29.2%) and 39% and 15.3% of the cases showed 131I thyroid uptake rate higher than 40% or lower than 10% respectively.
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  • Haruo NAKAMURA
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 371-374
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: December 13, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Administration of γ-oryzanol to mice at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 30 days resulted in a decreased incorporation of both acetate-1-14C and mevalonic acid-2-14C into hepatic cholesterol.
    When γ-oryzanol was injected to mice at a dose of 1 mg/kg for 14 days, the drug caused an increas of the fecal excretion of total-14C, total sterol-14C, total bile acid-14C and nonsaponifiable material-14C derived from cholesterol-14C injection.
    The supplementation of 0.01% of γ-oryzanol into antibiotic diet inhibited an increase of hepatic cholesterol level and a decrease of the incorporation of acetate-1-14C into hepatic cholesterol induced by feeding an antibiotic diet contained 2% of sulfathiazole and 0.4% of oxytetracycline to mice for 12 days.
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 375-378
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 379-381
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 382-384
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 385-387
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 388-392
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 393-404
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • 1966 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages A715-A288
    Published: November 15, 1966
    Released: July 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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