Evaporation and concentration of synthetic Purex 1WW waste solution by submerged combustion were experimentally studied. A mixture of propane and oxygen gases was used as a fuel gas to the quartz-made burner. The following results were obtained: (1) The boiling point of still residue was 10-16°C lower than that in the ordinary evaporator, and volume reduction of the waste solution was performed until the volume reduction ratio (volume of still residue/ volume of feed) reached 0.3. (2) Submerged combustion evaporator having a small, simple structure operated successfully, and thermal efficiency was high. (3) The volume of off-gas may be reduced if carbon dioxide in the flue gas is removed and the combustion in the burner proceeds completely. (4) The solution containing aluminum nitrate was evaporated, and converted into solid after cooling the concentrate down to room temperature.
The following items were experimentally investigated to obtain color radiograph of superior quality by192Ir or60Co, using color films (Sakura nega color film and Kodak Ektachrome film) . (1) The influence of the combination of intensifying screens on the hue and image quality of color radiograph. (2) The conditions of second flashing, which are required to obtain better color contrast. (3) The penetratmeter sensitivities in color radiography. Proper combination of intensifying screens improved the image quality of color radiograph, though the hue was a little changed. The condition to obtain wide range of color change was confirmed to be that the film, half developed in the first bath, was exposed to red, yellow or green light for 0.2 to 5 seconds at 150 cm distance from 150 W lamp. Second flashing procedure, properly practiced, could lead to high penetrameter sensitivity and wide latitude in color radiography. These results are considered to favor the application of color radiography to the non destructive testing of complex shaped specimens with nonuniform thickness.
This study concerned with the distribution of copper in rabbit liver cells which were fractionated into nucleus, mitochondria, microsomes and supernatant fractions after intracutaneous injection of a trace amount of64Cu (NO3) 2solution. At 1, 4, 12 and 24 hours after, injected rabbits were dissected. The liver was fractionated by the method of Hogeboom & Schneider, and the64Cu activities, total nitrogen and the serum ceruroplasmin were estimated in each time. The results were as follows: 1) The distribution of injected64Cu and the ratio of64Cu activity against nitrogen in each rabbit liver cell fractions, after 1, 4 and 12 hours treated, the highest activity was observed on mitochondria fraction. 2) The uptake of64Cu showed maximum 12 hours after injection in each fraction of all liver cell, except the supernatant which was observed to increase until 24 hours. 3) The uptake of64Cu of supernatant after 24 hours injection showed 69% activity of liver homogenate. 4) The results of incorporation of mitochondria to supernatant in 12-24 hours suggested that the copper related with protein synthesis in mitochondria fraction of liver cell.
Various radioisotopes such as131I-MAA, 113mIn-Fe (OH) 3, 133Xe, 85Kr have been generally used to study regional function of lungs. In our laboratory, lung profile scanning technique using131I-MAA was devised to study regional pulmonary blood flow. In this report, our equipment of lung profile scanning was demonstrated and basic problems of this method were discussed, and application of this method to radioactive gases was also presented. Bilateral lungs were separately scanned in longitudinal direction, i, e., from the apex to the base over the posterior wall of the chest. This apparatus equipped with 2 inch sodium iodide crystal detectors and tapered collimators had a driving unit in combination with an induction motor and gears, and two pre-setting markers indicating a localization of collimator against the lung area. Scintillation pulses were recorded through ratemeter system on the running paper with the same speed as its scanning speed. In order to obtain the ideal distribution curve of isotope, the fundamental properties of the linear scanning propose to determine the optimal relationship of a time constant to scanning speeds. “Scanning shift” and “decreased peak value” of pulmograms were used as the indicators for elucidating this relation. Our study indicated that optimal relation between scanning speeds and time constants was as follows; when time constant was 0.5 sec, its optimal scanning speed was 20 mm/sec or less, and when time constant was 1.0 sec, its optimal speed was 5 mm/sec or less, respectively. In the lung profile scanning with low energy γ-emitter such as133Xe, the lung should be scanned simultaneously with two collimators, anteriorly and posteriorly.