In order to elucidate the physico-chemical behaviour of the radionuclides such as60Co, 106Ruand144Cein sea water, electrodialytic studies on the effects of aging of the radionuclides in sea water were carried out. 60Coin sea water showed not only cationic species, but also electroneutral species with aging. 106Ruin the original form of chloro complexes in sea water showed relatively a large number of well-defined species which can be readily classified into anionic, cationic, electroneutral, colloidal or particulate, non-dialytic and more or less adsorbable species. With aging, the negatively charged forms slowly decreased with changing of positively charged and electroneutral forms. 144Cein sea water showed initially cationic species. However, electroneutral and negatively charged species were formed with aging. Colloidal or particulate, non-dialytic and more or less adsorbable species of144Cewere also found.
Insulin radioimmunoassay by Phadebas Insulin Test, a facile assay kit, using“SephadexAnti-Insulin Complex”was studied. Considerably good results were obtained by the studies on insulin recovery test and reproducibility of assay values. As a whole, about the same assay levels were demonstrated between Phadebas Insulin Test and modified Hales-Randle's method. Serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI) changes during 50 g oral glucose tolerance test in 6 non-diabetic and 18 diabetic patients, and during intravenous sulfonylurea response test in 6 healthy young male volunteers were studied by use of Phadebas Insulin Test. The results in both tests concurred with those of usual radioimmunoassay methods. Usefulness of Phadebas Insulin Test was proved.
Ninety-five plasma samples were assayed for insulin using Phadebas Insulin Test (an insulin radioimmunoassay kit: manufactured by Pharmacia Co., Ltd.) in comparison with the results obtained by the ethanol precipitation method. The correlation between two methods was high (r=0.911, p<0.001), and the regression coefficient was Y6.848+0.821X. From the results obtained, the Phadebas Insulin Test can be used as a practically useful method for radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin.
Clinical usefulness of a newly developed in vitro method for TBC-index-Thyopac-3 test-has been studied. The Thyopac-3 test was proved to have many advantages, such as, necessity of small amount of serum samples (0.1 ml), short incubation time (15 min), simple manipulations (2 pipeting and 1 counting), and good reproducibility among kit, batch and between batches. The effects of incubation temperature were also rather small, but the constant and low temperature seemed to be optimal. The Thyopac-3 tests have been appraised for 102 clinical subjects, and the results were compared with those of T3resin uptake tests. A very good (r=0.92) but non-linear correlation was obtained, and the Thyopac-3 test was found more favorable for the high TBC side and T3resin uptake test was known to have wider range for the low TBC side. Comparison of the results of these two tests with serum T4concentration by competitive protein binding analysis did not show any significant differences.
The effect of desferrioxamine (DFO), a specific iron ehelating agent on the elimination of radioiron from the untreated, and iron overloaded mice was investigated. The amount of radioiron elimination was determined by whole-body counting for around 2 months. When DFO was injected before radioiron injection, the elimination of radioiron was marked, but it was less when DFO was administered after radioiron injection. The rate of elimination of radioiron was larger in the untreated mice than the iron overloaded, since the untreated mice took up larger amount of radioiron in the red cells than the iron overloaded, and intestinal bleeding was marked in the mice of both groups. On the other hand, the iron overloaded mice stored radioiron mostly in tissues and the effect of DFO, which removes iron from storage top soil, was not so marked, except the initial stage of the study, as compared to the loss due to intestinal bleeding. In addition to the above experiment, clinical procedures for the elimination of overdosed radioiron was introduced as follows; For ingested radioiron give 2 g of DFO orally or intramuscularly as soon as possible, and continue the dose for a week. Within one hour after the ingestion of radioiron, let vomit, rinse the stomach, and give laxatives. For injected radioiron, inject 2 g of DFO immediately and give the dose daily for a week. Deplete 400 ml of blood once a week, until the patient become iron deficient, then supply an equivalent amount of iron lost by blood depletion intravenously. If patient's hematopoiesis is damaged by radioiron, remove the radioiron incorporated red cells, and transfuse cold red cells. Administration of cold iron orally or intravenously after radioiron does notblock the absorption of radioiron, nor flush out radioiron retained in the body.