The preconcentration by evaporation to dryness and the coprecipitation with Fe (OH) 3and PbS were applied to activation analysis of river water samples taken from the Tonegawa river, the main source of tap water supply to Tokyo district. The following 24 elements could be determined: Al, Ca, Dy, Mg, Ti, V (by short period irradiation), Ag, As, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, W and Zn (by long period irradiation) . The concentration of these elements is considered to be in naturally occurring levels in subsurface water. This pretreatment method proved to be applicable satisfactorily for the instrumental neutron activation analysis of trace elements in river water sample.
Recently99mTc-gluconate and99mTc-DMS have been developed as radio pharmaceuticals for renal scintigraphy and they have been used clinically. We studied experimentally renal uptake and body distribution of these two radiopharmaceuticals using rats. And a scinticamera equipped with a computer was utilized for dynamic curves in clinical studies. 99mTc-gluconate gave rapid urinary excretion and blood clearance. Renal uptake was rapid initially and then showed gradual decrease. 99mTc-DMS, on the other hand, gave slow urinary excretion and blood clearance. Renal uptake increased slowly and then showed the even level. In clinical studies, 99mTc-gluconate provided valuable additional information about renal collecting system in the early phase after the injection. And the late scintigraphy with99mTc-DMS was beneficial in demonstrating kidneys of the patient with severe renal damage. Although some differences could be found in the distribution of these agents, the both gave good renal image and seems to be suitable radio pharmaceuticals for renal scintigraphy.
Bleomycin labelled with111In was used as a tumor-localizing agent in 36 patients (40 scintigrams), who were suspected or diagnosed having malignant tumor clnically. All patients were inpatients and outpatients of the Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo. The regions where clinically suspected malignant disease and where abnormally accumulated on scintigrams were excluded to estimate the normal distribution of111In-BLM. All scintigrams were taken 48 hrs after injection of111In-BLM 2-3 mCi. The score of normal distribution was as followings: liver 100, mediastinum 54.0, thyroid area 50.0, nasopharynx 48.5, salivary area 42.5, lumbar spine 40.5 and kidneys 30.5. The large intestine, hip joints, eye area and lung fields were revealed in a few cases. Compared this study with the previous study on normal distribution of67Ga-citrate, the score of large intestine was shown 28.5-37 points on67Ga-citrate scintigrams but it was only 1.5-0 points on111In-BLM scintigrams. The kidneys were not app reciated on67Ga-citrate scintigrams, but its score was 31.5 on111In-BLM scintigrams. On chest, the heart was not revealed on67Ga-citrate scintigrams, but its score was 37.5 on111In-BLM scintigrams. We conclude that111In-BLM would be more effective than67Ga-citrate in detecting malignant tumors which locate in lower abdomen.
In 48 patients we performed whole body bone scintigram using99mTc-labelled monoft uorophosphate. Twentyfour cases revealed abnormal bone scintigram and 24 revealed no abnormal uptake. No acute side-effects were found in all cases in performing bone scintigrams. In comparing the radioisotopic findings with those of the conventional X-ray study, we found higher incidence of abnormality in bone scintigrams than in bone X-ray films. We conclude this compound in very useful clinically in detecting abnormality in the skeletal system, not only in malignant disease, but also in metabolic bone disease, as well as the agents which were developed previously.
We classified the left lateral view of liver scan of liver cirrhosis into three image patterns. This view was also a good position for estimation of the size of left lobe of liver and spleen as well as anterior and posterior views. The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis was confirmed by laparoscopic diagnosis of nodular liver. The image pattern III was observed most frequently, the second was the pattern II and the least was the pattern I. In comparing the pattern II with the pattern III, it was noted that the case with splenomegaly was observed more frequently in the pattern II than in the pattern III. It was also noted that in the pattern III, the value of zinc sulfate turbidity test was widely distributed, but in the pattern II about 50% of the cases revealed the value over 20. In this meaning, we conclude that this view might be useful in the diagnosis of the severity of liver cirrhosis in some clinical cases.
Combined radioisotope examinations of hepatic tumor have been performed using α1-fetoprotein radioimmunoassay, radioisotope angiography of the liver and some tumor positive imaging scintigraphies. However, it is frequently impossible with these methods to differentiate metastatic cancers from benign focal lesions. In the present study, radioisotope angiography of the liver, and both early (5 min later) - and delayed (4 hours later) blood pool scintigraphies of the liver were done continuously after 10 mCi of99mTc-albumin intravenous injection, in the case of clearcut focal lesions on99mTc-colloid liver scan. Furthermore, the relationships among these findings were examined. Four out of seven cases with hepatoma and two out of nine cases with metastatic cancer which showed hypervascular findings on radioisotope angiogram showed clear blood pool activities in the area of focal defects on99mTc-colloid scan although less than liver. On the other hand, none of hypovascular tumors on radioisotope angiogram showed blood pool activities. However, four hours later, in most malignant lesions, the lesion to liver activity ratio calculated from data processing system showed a much higher value than the ratio obtained 5 min later after injection, although two cases with benign focal lesions did not show such sequential change. From the present study, the sequential evaluation of the vascular state of hepatic tumor using radioisotope angiography, and early-and delayed blood pool scintigraphies was supposed to be extremely useful for the elucidation of the nature of focal hepatic lesions on99mTc-colloid scan, especially in case of the differentiation between hypovascular malignant- and benign lesions.