Interpretation of spleen size in the liver scintigram was analysed in this study. The spleen size of 325 cases, finally proved of their diseases by autopsies, surgeries, etc., were interpreted by 11 nuclear medicine physicians from 8 institutions. Moderate splenomegaly was suggested when the size of the spleen, expressed by the ratio of longitudinal spleen length to the body width, exceeds 40%. Definite splenomegaly was correctly diagnosed at the ratio of more than 50%.
Liver scintigrams of 406 cases were interpreted by 11 physicians. The ratios of the interpretation of the physiologically decreased activity areas in the liver scintigrams were 27% in the regions of the porta hepatis, 23% in the gall bladder fossa, 20% in the inferior vena cava, 7% in the renal impression, 2% in the portal vein, 2% in the rib impression and 2% in others. The cases having space occupying lesions showed decreased ratio of the interpretation of the physiologically decreased activity areas, as compared with other groups. Cases of the liver cirrhosis showed decreased ratio in the region of inferior vena cava. Cases using Anger camera demonstrated more increased ratio than cases using a scanner. The 11 physicians could be devided for two groups. One group showed high ratios of the interpretation of the physiologically decreased activity areas, and another group showed very low ratio, because of the different interpretation about the physiologically decreased activity areas in the two groups. In our cases, a very few cases showing decreased activity on the liver image were false positive or false negative for diagnosis of space occupying lesions.
The lesion detectability of scintillation camera was studied for201Tl imaging using simulating myocardial phantom having a cold lesion with volume of 12 cm3 (1.3×3×3) . The lesion detectability expressed as level of confidence of visual evaluation on phantom images was discussed with the position of cold lesion and the object contrast defined by the maximum signal to background ratio.
This study was undertaken to investigate the accumulation of67Ga in an experimental abscess and to elucidate the mechanism of67Ga uptake in the abscess. Two, three, five, seven and ten days after subcutaneous injection of 0.2ml turpentine to the rats, 67Ga-citrate was injected to the rats. Twenty-four hours after injection of67Ga, abscess and organs were excised and uptake rates of67Ga were assayed. Furthermore, five days after subcutaneous injection of 0.2ml turpentine to the rats, 67Ga-citrate was injected to the rats, at various time intervals from 10 minutes to 6 days, abscess and organs were excised and uptake rates of67Ga were assayed. And subcellular distribution of67Ga in abscess was determined at various time intervals after administration of67Ga-citrate. On the other hand, to elucidate67Ga binding substances in abscess, 67Ga-citrate and sodium sulfate-35S were injected to the above rats, respectively. Twenty-four hours after injection, abscess was excised and homogenized. The homogenate was digested with proteinase. After digestion, the reaction mixture was gelfiltered on Sephadex G-100. Eluate samples were assayed for radioactivity, uronic acid and protein. Uptake rates of67Ga in abscess increased with time after injection of turpentine and reached a plateau 5-7 days later. Ten minutes, 24 hours and 72 hours after injection of67Ga, uptake rates of67Ga in abscess were 0.92%/g, 3.3%/g and 5.6%/g, respectively. Uptake rates of67Ga (24 hours after injection) in abscess was 2.0-3.4 time of tumor uptake rates (previously reported) . And, large amounts of67Ga were in supernatant and decreased with time, but67Ga in lysosome increased with time until 24 hours. On the other hand, 67Ga was eluted with acid mucopolysaccharides with molecular weights of 9400-40000, and with molecular weight larger than 40000. And, it was concluded that67Ga was bound to the acid mucopolysaccharides (heparan sulfate, etc) in abscess.
The methods of neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) have been employed to determine the concentration levels of 18 trace elements in filter-collected airborne aerosols over an urban area in Nigeria. The highest concentrations measured in the samples were for Cl, Na, Al, Pb, Ca and Zn. The aerosol particles were found to contain higher concentrations of soil-derived trace elements, such as Al, Ti, K and Na than those derived from combustion and industrial activities such as As, Cd, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni and Sb. The average precision of measurements varied between ±5.2% and 13% for most elements. Possible sources of the elements are also discussed.