Aluminum content in Pepperbush standard reference material has been precisely determined by reactor neutron activation analysis. Full-energy peak area of28Al in gamma-ray spectrum of activated sample, which is measured with a 50 cm3 Ge (Li) detector, is corrected by following coefficients; (1) counting efficiency of the Ge (Li) detector for disc source, (2) decay rate of28Al activity during measurement, (3) loss of full-energy peak area caused by pulse-pile up, (4) 28Al production rate by28Si (n, p) 28Al reaction, (5) 28Al production rate by31P (n, α) 28Al reaction. Overall contribution for analytical value of these corrections is 4 to 10%. As a result, aluminum content in Pepperbush is determined to be 600±40μg g-1.
Synthesis of three forms of selectively duterated desipramine with high isotopic purity through acid-catalyzed hydrogen-deuterium exchange reactions and the stability of deuterium labeling are described. Deuterated desipramine labeled at positions 2, 4, 6 and 8 [DMI-d4 (I) ] was prepared directly by heating desipramine in 10% DCl-D2O at 80°C for 8 hours. Desipramine labeled at all eight aromatic positions (DMI-d8) was synthesized from iminodibenzyl-1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9-d8. Desipramine labeled at positions 1, 3, 7 and 9 [DMI-d4 (II) ] was obtained by the “back-exchange” of DM1 d8under the protio condition according to the exchange procedure of DMI-d4 (I) . Deuterium atoms labeled at positions 2, 4, 6 and 8 of desipramine were eliminated rapidly in 1 N HCl at 80°C, but those labeled at positions 1, 3, 7 and 9 of desipramine were quite chemically stable.
In assessing the internal radiation dose to man from radionuclides released from nuclear facilities including ground disposal facilities, the soil-crop plants-man pathway is one of the important ones. The information on this pathway, however, is quite limited in Japan. This paper focuses on transfer of54Mn, 65Zn and60Co from culture solution to crop plants, particularly to the edible parts of the plants. Rice plant (Oryza sativa cv. Koshihikari), spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.), soybean (Glycine max Merr.), and the other four kinds of crop plants were transplanted to culture solution in which54MnCl2, 65ZnCl2or60CoCl2were contained, and their transfer rates in each organ of the plants were obtained. The differences in the distribution patterns among the crop plant species, among the nuclides and the effect of the stable isotope concentration in the solution on their distributions were discussed in this paper. And critical crop plants for54Mn, 65Zn and60Co were also selected.
Application of radiolabeled monoclonal anti-tumor antibodies for diagnosis and therapy has made remarkable progress in the past few years. Quantification of radiopharmaceutical localization is required adequate attenuation correction in SPECT imaging. Attenuation correction by transmission CT (TCT) data is one of the best method at present time. However, if a patient is moved between TCT and SPECT, this method is no more applicable. We developed a new attenuation correction algolism by dual energy method, using99mTc and111In because of similarity of these linear attenuation coefficients. The new algolism uses data of TCT with an external source of99mTc, and requires another data from SPECT of111In labeled monoclonal anti-tumor antibody, which are simultaneously obtained. TCT results in an attenuation map, which then serves as input into the final intrinsic correction algolism to uncorrected SPECT data. In chest phantom experiment, the attenuation corrected SPECT images revealed nearly same distribution of actual radioactivity of111In as compared to that of uncorrected one.
To utilize111In leukocytes in a routine work, simplified procedure for sterile leukocytes preparation and labeling with water soluble oxine sulfate was performed. Viability and chemotaxis of leukocytes were maintained during separation and labeling. Chelated rate of111In with oxine sulfate was 93.5%. Labeling efficiency of111In leukocytes was 93.8%. Obvious blood pool images due to remaind erythrocytes were not observed.111In labeled leukocytes showed good migration into inflammatory focci.
Semi-quantitative method of IV isopropyl- (123I) -p-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) accumulation in cerebrum by using123I-IMP SPECT was tried. Ratio of counts in whole cerebrum to those in normal cerebellum was calculated, and this accumulation is defined as cerebrum to cerebellum accumulation ratio. In group of patients with dementia or patients who were remaining in bed, significantly low accumulation ratio was observed, while in “normal” group, no differences in sex and aging were observed. Calculations of cerebrum to cerebellum accumulation ratio was concluded as a useful method of evaluating the accumulation of123I-IMP in cerebrum.
The analysis of kinetic rate constants in the compartment model for [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was undertaken. Four kinetic rate constants were determined with a least square fitting package SALS (Statistical Analysis with Least Squares), using the measured data of18F activity as a function of time. SALS calculations were found to be easy and quick with high precision. The rate constants and the curves fitted by the k3and the k4models were compared in situations with various degree of cerebral glucose metabolism during positron emission tomography (PET) studies. The k4model in the determination of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglu) was much superior than the k3model in any given situation as it always underestimates the metabolic rate. However, the k3model produces less variation when the cerebral radioactivity curve shows steady rising pattern.
We studied on the basic performance of a nonextraction coated tube RIA kit, DPC Aldosterone kit (Nippon DPC Corporation) . 1. The average binding CVs of the calibrators (25 to 1200 pg/ml) were stable in a range from 1.4 to 1.9%. 2. The minimum sensitivity was 17 pg/ml from 2SD method of 0 calibrator. 3. The intra-assay reproducibility test showed an average CV as 9.0%, and the inter-assay test showed as 8.8%. 4. The recovery ratios of a recovery test were 85.4 to 121.6%. 5.The correlation test with another maker's kit showed a correlation curve as y=0.970 * x+19.68 and a correlation coefciency as r=0.970. 6. The normal range, the correlation between fasting recumbency and daytime sitting, and the correlation between walking and resting, showed similar results as former reports.