Farnesylacetic acid was efficiently labelled with14Cat the 5-position and gefarnate, a potent ulcer inhibitor, was prepared from it in radioactive form for use in metabolic studies. Condensation of [carbonyl-14C] acetyl chloride (5) with t-butyl 2-ethoxymagnesiomalonate (6) followed by acid-catalyzed deprotection and decarboxylation gave ethyl 3-oxo [3-14C] butanoate (8) . Alkylation of the keto ester (8) with geranyl bromide (9) afforded the unsaturated keto ester (10), which was hydrolyzed and decarboxylated to give geranyl [2-14C] acetone (11) . Grignard reaction of 11 with cyclopropylmagnesium bromide followed by treatment with hydrobromic acid yielded [4-14C] homofarnesyl bromide (13) . Cyanation of 13 with potassium cyanide and subsequent hydrolysis gave [5-14C] farnesylacetic acid (1) in 6.1% yield from barium [14C] carbonate (3) . Chlorination of 1 followed by esterification with geraniol afforded [5-14C] gef arnate (2) in 88% yield.
The value of preoperative bone scans in patients with primary breast and prostate cancer was evaluated prospectively. Of 414 patients with breast cancer, clinical stage I is 14, II is 219, IIIA is 59, IIIB is 39 and IV is 14. Of 88 patients with prostate cancer, clinical stage I is 14, II is 15, III is 18 and IV is 41. 11 percent of patients with breast cancer and 54 percent of patients with prostate cancer had bone metastases. Clavicle, ribs, thoracic spine, lumbar spine and pelvis metastasized most freqently. The incidences of bone metastases were 18.4% with Scirrhous carcinoma, 15.4% with Medullary tubular carcinoma and 3.8% with Papillotubular carcinoma. The methodology and results of ROC analysis were described in our other papers. Some results of data analysis were described in this paper.
The value of preoperative bone scans in patients with primaly breast and prostate cancer was evaluated prospectively. The methodology and some clinical results were described previously. The clinical efficacy of the bone scan was assessed by using ROC analysis and we obtained the following results. 1) Preoperative bone scan of carcinomas of the breast is effective for patients with clinical stage IIIA, IIIB and IV. It is not so effective for patients with clinical stage I and II, but there is no denying the importance of it, because it provides a base-line scan for comparison to subsequent scans obtained in the postoperative period. 2) Preoperative bone scan of prostate carcinomas is effective, especially for clavicle, the ribs and the cervical spine, when compared with bone X-ray. 3) Bone scan is effective means for patients who were diagnosed uncertainly to have bone metastasis.
A microcalorimeter is described which was developed and tested for measuring the activity of pure, β particle emitters. Two identically made calorimeter cells are used, each 46.5 mm i.d. and 54.0 mm deep and each fitted with thermomodules generating an emf of about 29 mV °C-1. The thermal energy from the cells flows into a surrounding mass of aluminium (15kg) embedded in 30 mm thick styrofoam. The entire assembly is then immersed into an open thermostated bath controlled by electric heaters an arrangement which facilitates acces for sample changing. The outputs of the modules (sensors) are connected in opposing polarities, the net output being amplified and this voltage signal is used to estimate the radioactivity in the samples. In order to demonstrate usefulness of this calorimeter, approximately 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) of tritiated water was measured. The result was compared with that of liquid scintilation counting method and found to be agreed within 5%.
A short assembly program for the PC-9801 series personal computer (NEC Corporation) has been written to receive and write the 4096 or less channel data from the S35 plus and S40 MCA (Canberra Industries Inc.) to a floppy disk. The operating system is the MS-DOS version 3.10. The data are transferred via RS-232C, and the each byte of data is received by MS-DOS BIOS call. The source list of the program is shown, and the procedures to obtain the executable code from the source list and to use the data on disks in a N88 BASIC program are explained. By using the program, it takes about 22s to transfer a whole of 4096 channel data with the transfer rate of 9600 baud.
This study was carried out to investigate effects of drugs treated in the elderly osteoporotic patients on measurements of carboxy terminal, mid-region and intact PTH, by using the various kinds of PTH kits. The drugs such as1α (OH) D3, calcitonin and so on, in the treatment of osteoporotic patients, was brought about no significant inter-relationships among carboxy terminal, mid-region and intact PTH in sera of the elderly osteoporotic patients with serum high alkaline phosphatase activity.
Asynchronous communication was made between host (FACOM M-340) and personal computer (OLIBETTIE S-2250) to get patient's information required for RIA test registration. The retrieval system consists of a keyboad input of six numeric codes, patient's ID, and a real time reply containing six parameters for the patient. Their identified parameters are patient's name, sex, date of birth (include area), department, and out- or inpatient. Linking this program to RIA registration program for individual patient, then, operator can input name of RIA test requested. Our simple retrieval program made a useful data network between different types of host and stand-alone personal computers, and enabled us accurate and labor-saving registration for RIA test.