Diagnostic accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) using18F-fluorodeoxyglucose for lung cancer has been evaluated as a retrospective multi-center survey in Japan. A total of 600 studies were collected from the 15 institutions. For the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant tumors, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 81.1 % (322/397), 63.5% (54/85), 78.9% (376/482), respectively. For the staging diagnosis of lung cancer patients, whole-body PET was superior to CT/MRI in 21.3% (35/164), equal to CT/MRI in 73.8% (121/164), inferior to CT/MRI in 4.9% (8/164) . It was assumed that sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of whole-body FDDG-PET for the diagnosis of metastatic foci were 88.3%, each. Cost-effectiveness analysis of FDG-PET for the diagnosis of lung cancer in Japan was performed on the basis of these data. The strategy of whole-body FDG-PET for the staging diagnosis of lung cancer showed a saving of 43, 000 yen per patient as a result of improving staging of lung cancer and avoiding unnecessary surgery. The total saving in diagnosis and surgery of lung cancer in Japan will be 1.5 billion yen per year (1.9% of total cost in diagnosis and surgery) .
We develop the non-destructive analysis methods for archaeological samples using high energy synchrotron radiation and laser electron photon (inverse compton scattered photons) . High energy synchrotron radiation is used for non destructive elemental analysis of heavy elements to efficient analysis with less overlapped peaks. Faiences which are made recently are tested as samples. Glaze has many elements and there is difference between Iran's glaze and Egypt's glaze. As a result, high energy synchrotron radiation has possibility to solve the provenance issues. Moreover, Pb and Ba, which are detected by elemental analysis, are appropriate for isotope analysis to obtain farther information. Pb and Ba can be indices for glaze and basement respectively. The elements of excavated faience will be analyzed in future. The non destructive isotope analysis using laser electron photons will be developed at the same time.
Iodine-129 is an important radionuclide for environmental assessment, because it has a long halflife. A new analytical technique using Microwave Induced Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MIP-MS) was applied to the determination of iodine-129 in environmental samples. In environmental samples, a large amount of matrix elements is present. Therefore, the matrix elements were eliminated by ashing at 1000°C, and iodine was trapped by activated charcoal and finally extracted by tetramethylammonium hydroxide. A soil sample was analyzed by neutron activation analysis as well as MIP-MS method. Excellent agreement resulted.