Diagnosis of adrenal adenomas for patients with primary aldosteronism is sometimes difficult only by referring to the visualization pattern in adrenocortical scintigraphy without regards to standard scintigraphy or suppression scintigraphy with dexamethasone. We studied if quantitative evaluation of the standard scintigraphy without dexamethasone suppression can be useful to diagnose aldosteronomas. Twenty-nine patients who had undergone adrenalectomy with different clinical manifestations (16 patients with primary aldosteronism, 6 patients with Cushing's syndrome and 7 patients without hormonal abnormality) were included in the study. Volume of the adrenocortical adenomas, 131I nor-cholesterol uptake of the adrenocortical adenomas, and 131I nor-cholesterol uptake per unit volume of the adrenocortical adenomas were compared between the 3 groups. The volume of adrenocortical adenomas in the patients with primary aldosteronism was significantly lower than those in the other two groups (Cushing's syndrome p<0.01, Non-hormonal abnormality p<0.01). No significant differences were found between the 3 groups in terms of 131I nor-cholesterol uptake of adrenocortical adenoma. The 131I nor-cholesterol uptake per unit volume of adrenocortical adenomas was significantly higher in the patients with primary aldosteronism than those in the other two groups (Cushing's syndrome p<0.001, Non-hormonal abnormality p<0.001). 131I nor-cholesterol uptake per unit volume of adenoma obtained from adrenocortical scintigraphy without dexamethasone suppression can be useful in the diagnosis of aldosteronoma.
In order to evaluate the efficiency of shell biomass as sorbent for rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th) and uranium (U), sorption experiment from multi-element solutions containing known amount of REEs, Th and U using Buccinum tenuissimum shell was explored. Furthermore, to confirm the characteristics of the shell biomass, the surface morphology, the crystal structure, and the specific surface area of the shell (both original sample and the heat-treatment (480°C, 6h) sample) was determined. Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1)By heat-treatment (480°C, 6h), the crystal structure of the shell biomass was transformed from aragonite (CaCO3) into calcite (CaCO3) phase, and the specific surface area of the biomass have decreased remarkably (i.e., by a factor of less than one eighth). (2)The shell biomass (both original sample and the heat-treated sample) showed excellent sorption capacity for REEs, although the sorption capacity decreases slightly after heat-treatment. (3)Adsorption isotherms using the shell biomass can be described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms satisfactorily for REEs, but not for Th and U in this work. (4)Shell biomass (usually treated as waste material) could be an efficient sorbent for REEs in future.
The guidance named “Standards of Compounds Labeled with Positron Emitting Radionuclides Approved as Established Techniques for Medical Use” was initially proposed in 1985 by the subcommittee of Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) for the safe and effective use of positron emitting radiotracers in clinical research. The guidance has been continuously updated, and JRIA has approved the standards of the 15 compounds based on this guidance. Recently, it has come to attention that it is necessary to reform the guidance in order to keep in line with international and domestic trends of developing pre-clinical and clinical standards for evaluating safety and efficacy of positron emitting radionuclide. After a year-long discussion by the Subcommittee on Medical Application of Positron Emitting Radionuclides and its working team, we now propose for reformation of the guidance in accordance with the future direction of the international and national regulations.
Neutron diffraction study under high pressure and high temperature is reviewed from the technical point of view. Particularly, cell assembly for the high-PT neutron diffraction using a Paris-Edinburgh cell with the temperature calibration by neutron resonance spectroscopy is introduced. Notes on the errors relevant to high pressure and high temperature experiments in both monochromatic angle dispersive and time-of-flight methods are also discussed.