RADIOISOTOPES
Online ISSN : 1884-4111
Print ISSN : 0033-8303
ISSN-L : 0033-8303
Volume 60 , Issue 6
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Review Articles
  • Tsukasa TADA
    2011 Volume 60 Issue 6 Pages 241-248
    Published: 2011
    Released: June 29, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Elementary particle physics is a discipline that aims to understand the origin of matter at the most fundamental level. An outline of elementary particle physics is presented as plainly as possible in the three-part tutorial. In the first part, the most fundamental particles called quarks and leptons are introduced. Quarks consist protons, neutrons and mesons, which Dr. Hideki Yukawa had predicted, while neutrinos and electrons are called leptons along with muons, which were discovered by Dr. Yoshio Nishina.
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  • Jun KAWAI, Yasukazu NAKAYE, Eisuke HIRO, Hiroyuki IDA
    2011 Volume 60 Issue 6 Pages 249-263
    Published: 2011
    Released: June 29, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    How to emit X-rays easily using a cigarette lighter (electric discharge) is explained, and a history of studies of X-ray production methods using electrification or charge up is also included. Comments are given for the related patents. The related following topics are explained:X-ray emission from pyroelectric crystal, a series use of pyroelectric crystals, and peel-off of adhesive tape. Relations to PIXE(particle-induced X-ray emission) experiment and nuclear fusion using pyroelectric crystal are also given. Explanations of palm-top size EPMA(electron probe X-ray microanalyzer) and XRF(X-ray fluorescence) spectrometers that can be made in laboratory quite easily are added. Application of pyroelectric XRF to the following materials are given:leather, cinnabar seal ink, polyvinyl chloride, cup, steel, paint. The detection limit of pyroelectric XRF is down to 180 ppm and, if pretreated, 0.1 ppm. The general trend of X-ray instruments is miniaturization and XRF using even a few wattage X-ray tube is superior to SPring-8 synchrotron XRF in some experimental conditions. Special attention is noted to the danger of an electric circuit, where a high voltage is applied, because of the exposure to X-rays, produced by the electrification under specific conditions of electrification and a vacuum level.
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