Large amount of radioactive materials had released by the nuclear power plant accident at Fukushima Daiichi site. The level of radiation dose rate has been raised by the radioactive material on the ground. We measured the dose rates in Kawamata-machi, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, which is located about 40km from the power plant in north-west direction. We measured the 137Cs concentration in soil samples by the Ge diode detector. The result shows more than 90% of 137Cs exists the depth from the surface to 10mm. The soil of shallow depth was sieved to 6 series by particle size. The radioactivity of the parts less than 0.5mm diameter accounts for more than 80% of the total.
We studied the absorption and distribution of two kinds of amino acid, glutamine and valine, in a rice seedling to study the difference of availability of organic nutrients. When doubly labeled (15N and 13C) amino acids were applied, absorption and accumulation amount of 15N in the rice seedling was the same but especially, in the case of glutamine, accumulation amount of 13C in the seedling was lower than that of absorbed amount. These results suggested that a part of amino acids assimilated in the plant was lost as carbon dioxide through respiration and the assimilation of glutamine occurred more smoothly than that of valine.
In the summer of 2011, we grew processing tomatoes in 14 experimental fields that differed in soil radioactive caesium concentration, and we investigated both the radioactive caesium transfer factor (TF=fruit radioactive caesium concentration, Bq/kg fresh-weight/soil radioactive caesium concentration, Bq/kg dry-weight) for the tomatoes and the soil factors involved in absorption. The TF was different for each field(range, 0.00031 — 0.0072). The radioactive caesium concentration in the fruit correlated positively with the exchangeable radioactive caesium concentration in the soil(r=0.77, p‹0.01), and the TF varied inversely with the exchangeable potassium concentration in the soil(ρ=−0.65, p‹0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that 73% of the variation of radioactive caesium concentration in the fruit arose from variations in the exchangeable radioactive caesium and potassium concentrations in the soil. Thus, the soil concentration of both exchangeable radioactive caesium and exchangeable potassium were major factors involved in the absorption of radioactive caesium by tomato plants. In addition, the findings suggest that potassium fertilizers could inhibit the absorption of radioactive caesium where the soil concentration of exchangeable potassium is low.
The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 2011 had contaminated with radiocaesium on the wide eastern area of Fukushima Prefecture. In this study, distribution of radiocaesium in blood and muscle of cattle body was measured and analyzed using the compartment model. Consequently, it is found that the concentration of 137Cs in blood correlates closely with that in tissue of internal organs. In addition, the result of accumulative property(aiE/aEi) also suggests that 137Cs tends to accumulate into muscle.
This paper reviewed the status of food irradiation in Asia, the European Union, and the United States in 2010. Our results show that quantities of irradiated foods in Asia, the EU, and the US in 2010 were estimated at 285200, 9300, and 103000 tons, respectively. Compared with 2005, the quantity of irradiated foods was 100000 tons higher in Asia and 10000 tons higher in the US but 6000 tons lower in the EU. Thus, commercial food irradiation has increased significantly in Asia during the 5-year period studied. Phytosanitary irradiation of fruits and agricultural products has recently increased with 6 countries having irradiated 18500 tons in 2010.
Styrene is an important chemical in the industry and is produced by the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene over K-promoted Fe oxide catalyst. This process is highly endothermic and the catalyst tends to be easily deactivated, and therefore huge amount of steam was added to supply the heat and to prevent the catalyst deactivation. Recently new catalysts are under developing to suppress the heat usage and their activities were discussed on the data of characterization of the catalysts. In this paper, such results are reported mainly based on the results of Mössbauer spectrometry.
Ferroelectric material is used among various fields due to its useful properties. Such property is originated from the ordering and the fluctuation of electric dipole moments. In general, properties of material are based on the ordered structure and its fluctuation of physical order parameters. Thus, the crystal and magnetic structure is very important to understand physical properties of materials. Neutron and X-ray are indispensable tools for this investigation. Furthermore, neutron is very powerful tool to investigate dynamics as the fluctuation of the materials. In this article, I will describe the history of ferroelectrics and character of phonons, especially concepts of soft mode and mode condensation.