The amount of 238U in uranium-contaminated waste drums generated in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities is evaluated from γ-ray measurement. We used the γ-ray measurement system made from CANBERRA(Qualitative and Quantitative(Q2) Low Level Waste Assay Systems) and measured the waste drums. This system assumes uniform distribution of uranium. But, homogeneity can not be checked with real waste drums. Authors developed the new analysis technique which calculates the amount of uranium by correcting the influence of uneven distribution of the uranium. As a result of evaluating using the new analysis technique, the error which influences quantitative value of 238U has been evaluated.
To facilitate the use of the 13C breath test, we examined its usefulness in the diagnosis and pathological investigation of liver, pancreatic, and colon diseases and in the prediction of the antitumor effects of the anticancer agent S‐1.The 30-minute value of the L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test was useful for the pathological investigation of chronic liver diseases. The N-benzoyltyrosyl[1-13C] alanine breath test, useful for examination of the pancreatic exocrine function, facilitated the diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine disorders. The [1-13C] sodium butyrate enema breath test reflected the inflammatory activity of ulcerative colitis. The antitumor effects of the anticancer agent S-1 could be predicted using the [2-13C] uracil breath test 3h after the initial oral S-1 administration.
This article provides the fundamental information necessary for the appropriate evaluation of exposure doses in the environment. The basic characteristics of environmental γ rays from typical environmental sources are introduced; then, the dose conversion coefficients for the public at different ages are summarized which were obtained from the simulation considering the basic characteristics of environmental γ rays. Further, the variations of environmental exposure doses due to a variety of factors, and the relation of exposure doses to measured air dose rates are discussed.