The impregnation process of insoluble cobalt hexacyanidoferrate(II) onto an anion-exchange fiber was clarified. Vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium chloride and N-vinyl pyrrolidone were cograft-polymerized onto a 6-nylon fiber with an average diameter of 40μm to obtain an anion-exchange capacity of 0.61 mmol/g. Hexacyanidoferrate(II) ions were adsorbed onto the anion-exchange fiber uniformly across the fiber. Subsequently, by immersing the fiber into cobalt chloride solution, hexacyanidoferrate(II) ions were quantitatively reacted with cobalt ions to form a precipitate at the periphery of the fiber. No leakage of this precipitate to the external solution was detected. The impregnation percentage, defined as the mass content of the precipitate in the resultant fiber, was 6.6%.
We surveyed background level of radioactive contamination in city area of Osaka before combusting the wide area disposal of disastrous debris at a municipal waste incineration plant of Osaka city. The debris was caused by Tohoku district great earthquake disaster and suspected to be contaminated with radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants. We also investigated radioactivity in incineration ash of municipal waste incineration plants and of sewage treatment plants, as well as in water clarifier sludge of potable water treatment plants, and evaluated the accumulation and cleansing of radioactive materials via the reverse logistic function of the city. Radioactive caesium deposited in Osaka city area was estimated to be approximately 4.3 GBq from the concentrations observed in the monthly fallout, whereas that collected as municipal wastes and sewage was estimated to be approximately 0.9 GBq a year in 2011. Even two years after the accident, 134Cs, which is the evidence of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, had been detected in the municipal wastes at a level comparable to the activities found just after the accident, however, the radioactive caesium concentration in fallout measured in the Osaka city area had decreased below a detection limit after May 2012. Introduction of materials contaminated with radioactive caesium from outside the city area was suspected because the observed contamination level was inexplicable by that of observed in the environmental wastes such as pruned branches which are contaminated by with the fallout in city area of Osaka.
In order to understand the distribution of dose rate in the Fuji volcanic belt, theories of partial melting of rock and crystallization‐differentiation of magma have been applied to data of uranium, thorium and potassium contents of bedrocks collected through a literature survey.Dose rates due to mantle material(mantle dose rate) were estimated by using the partial melting theory. Applying the magmatic differentiation theory as well, dose rates due to bedrocks(rock dose rate) were calculated based on the mantle dose rate, which were compared favorably with observed data.Analysis of data of dose rates due to surface soils(soil dose rate) collected by other researchers along with a number of data measured newly in a considerable part of this belt revealed an across‐arc lateral variation in soil dose rate.
The coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi(Haptophyta) is one of the most abundant bloom-forming algae in worldwide oceans. We successfully developed and optimized a very sensitive and high-throughput algal lipidomics system using an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry(ESI‐MS/MS) in order to profile the lipids. In axenic strain E. huxleyi CCMP 2090, we identified molecular species of betaine lipids(1,2-diacylglyceryl-3‐(O-carboxyhydroxymethylcholin), glycerol lipids(monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol and triacylglycerol) and phospholipids(phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid) based on the simultaneous automated acquisition and processing of ion spectra of acyl-anions of common fatty acid moieties and several lipid class-specific fragment ions for 132 precursors. More than 600 apparent molecular mass species of polar glycerolipids were identified in E. huxleyi CCMP 2090. According to 3-D network analysis, E. huxleyi CCMP 2090 is notable for its high production of docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) and, in particular, a unique DHA biosynthetic pathway which is composed of both the omega-6fatty acid pathway and the mammalian-type “Sprecher” pathway.
Some characteristic features of soft matter and biomolecules in the inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering(INS and QENS) studies are described. In order to clarify the current situation of the studies the research history on soft matter and biomolecules by INS and QENS are described. As examples of the studies of slow dynamics of soft matter, neutron spin echo studies on breathing mode of polymer micelle and static and dynamics fluctuations in polymer gels.
This article provides practically useful information on air dose rate measurements in the environments. The basic requirements for the accurate measurements are described giving actual data. The characteristics and some measured results are shown for reliable methods which are widely used in the environmental radiation measurements. Further, information is given on internet sites where air dose rates and related data obtained by official organizations can be browsed.