The nutrient immobilized hydrogel was prepared by γ-irradiation of carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) supplemented with nutrient and oligoalginate. The gel fraction of prepared hydrogel was increased with increase of irradiation dose, while the swelling degree was decreased. The hydrogel prepared with 20% CMC, 20% PAM, 1% oligoalginate and nutrient at 15 kGy irradiation was the best for the growth of plant. The oligoalginate immobilized hydrogel promoted the germination of seeds and growth of seedling plants. In hydroponic cultivation, the growth and development of plants on oligoalginate immobilized hydrogel were much better than that of plants growing on coir dust. The nutrient and oligoalginate immobilized hydrogel showed a promising application for hydroponics as a new technique for production of safety vegetables with high yield and quality.
Nuclear Fusion is an excellent energy source characterized by high safety and inexhaustible fuel. Japan has been leading the world fusion research with achievement of the break-even condition in JT-60U etc. Now fusion research is coming to the stage of ‘system integration.’ Towards demonstration of the burning plasma and integrated fusion engineering, construction of ITER is underway in St Paul Lez Durance, France. In order to contribute to the success of ITER and complement ITER towards the demonstration reactor (DEMO), Japan and Europe are operating ‘The Broader Approach Activity’ in Japan, in which the JT-60A tokamak device is under construction in Naka city, Ibaraki prefecture for development of steady-state high pressure plasma operation and the IFMIF prototype accelerator for the fusion neutron engineering is under construction in Rokkasho village in Aomori prefecture. Fostering the next generation is also the important purpose of these activities. “The All Japan Activity” was recently organized for DEMO design and development.
Recent advance in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has successfully achieved almost ideal dose-distributions. Particularly, volumetric arc therapy (VMAT), an irradiation technique with continuous rotation of a gantry, can efficiently irradiate malignant lesions, and it should be routinely applied to various kinds of tumors. Currently, stereotactic body radiotherapy for prostate cancer is covered under health insurance in Japan, and it will expand to include additional types of tumors.