The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between Dohsa-hou and cognitive control modes according to the Dual Mechanism of Control framework (DMC model; Braver, 2012). The DMC model considers proactive control as a top-down, preparatory cognitive processing strategy and reactive control as a bottom-up, stimulus-driven cognitive processing strategy. We predicted that Dohsa-hou would improve reactive control because clients in Dohsa-hou would direct their attention to automated body movements that we do not normally pay attention to as a “late correction”, and use internal and external sensations to modify the intention or effort needed to perform the body-movement. Proactive control was measured with the AX version Continuous Performance Task and reactive control was measured with a modified Stroop task. Twenty-eight participants completed the cognitive tasks before and after being randomly assigned to either the Dohsa-hou group or the exercise group. The results showed that reactive control improved only in the Dohsa-hou group, while proactive control improved in both the Dohsa-hou and exercise groups from pre-test to post-test. These findings showed that different contributions of cognitive control strategies could relate to body movement execution and attentional direction. In addition, Dohsa-hou was characterized by an improvement in reactive control.
This study examined the effects of Dohsa-hou and Mirror Therapy （MT） on the bodily movements of a student with cerebral palsy. This subject was a 14-year old male who would grab objects to help him stand but was unable to walk; he had been using a wheelchair every day. The experiment was divided into three intervention periods. In Phase A, only Dohsa-hou was introduced; in Phase B, Dohsa-hou and lower limb MT were performed; and in Phase C, Dohsa-hou, and upper and lower limbs MT were conducted. The interventions were found to be successful as a significant change was noted in the subject both in relaxation and movement. The results of the evaluation of motion tasks conducted post the experiment were found to be high. The Manual Ability Classification System test was performed before the intervention and at the last phase; the outcomes of this examination reported a 14.5 points decrease in Phase C compared to the baseline score. An increase was also found in the Floor Toe Distance test; compared to the baseline, the left foot averaged 5.5 cm, and the right foot averaged 2.3 cm in Phase C, allowing dorsiflexion. These results were discussed by considering the differences in the visual feedback between Dohsa-hou and MT as well as the change in the experience process through Dohsa-hou and MT. This study suggests that a synergistic effect can be expected between these two therapies by implementing Dohsa-hou for the improvement of coarse movements, such as posture acquisition, and through the application of MT to improve limb movement.
The purpose of this case study was to discuss the use of Dohsa-hou at a psychological rehabilitation camp to treat a 7-year-old girl with severe cerebral palsy. Her body was tense in the direction of extension.The trainee was participating in the camp for the first time. It was difficult for her to relax her muscles by herself. First, the trainer attempted to help the trainee notice her hip joint becoming involuntarily tense and to try to relax it by herself. Then, by means of a Tate training task, the trainer asked the trainee to deeply bend her hip joint, with the aim of putting proper tension on each part of her body and gaining control over her movements. Thus, the trainee became aware of her body-schema and was able to promote self-development. She had an active effect on the environment.
This study aimed to examine the effects of Dohsa-hou intervention package on shaping of verbal request of child with autism spectrum disorder （ASD）. The subject child was a female first grader attending special support school because of severe intellectual disabilities. She had inappropriate behavior such as leaving the seat, hitting people around, strange voices, stroking and dropping things. The results of functional analysis indicated that these inappropriate behaviors had functions of social reinforcement （attention/ preferred items）. Therefore, it was hypothesized that these inappropriate behaviors would be reduced by forming verbal request. The subject child received the Dohsa-hou intervention package for 16 sessions consisted of the Dohsa-hou, and the shaping of verbal request during emotional exchange play and listening to music. As a result of the instruction, the subject child was able to raise and lower their arms with trainer in the arm raising movement task, and the rate of matching line of sight increased. The joint attention score shifted from the “attention operation” stage to the “representative symbol” stage. The child became able to request with fewer prompts. In addition, the seating rate in the classroom at school increased, inappropriate behavior decreased, and the verbal request increased. These results were discussed from the viewpoint of the effect of Dohsa-hou intervention package and the relation between the shaping verbal request and inappropriate behavior in the class.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a Dohsa-hou intervention package on the shaping of verbal request in a child with mild-modulate autism. The subject was a first grader enrolled in elementary special support school, who was 12 months, namely the operation attention stage on the joint attention score. The subject participated in the intervention package for 19 sessions. The package consisted of Dohsa-hou, shaping verbal request on both body touching play and playing tablet, and a joint action routine in the form of role-playing between a salesperson and a customer. The dependent variables were evaluated according to the joint attention score and the differences in the personal interactions of the subject between the baseline and the evaluation phase. Results indicated that the eye contact during Dohsa-hou and playing catch, the percentage of verbal requests completed, and the percentage of correct answers during role play increased. As results of the package, the subject advanced by 15 months, namely to the symbol formation stage on the joint attention score. These results were discussed from the relations among the Dohsa-hou, the development of joint attention, and shaping verbal request.
This study aimed to compare dimensions of causal attributions-locus of control, stability and controllability-between the mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those of children with typical development in relation to children’s well-adjusted and maladjusted behaviors. Participants were 21 mothers of elementary school children with ASD and 55 mothers of elementary school children with typical development. First, the mothers of children with ASD attributed well-adjusted behaviors to an external locus of control and rated them as having low levels of stability. Second, the mothers of children with ASD attributed maladjusted behaviors with a low level of controllability. The mothers of children with ASD exhibited a positive depressive attributional style, suggesting an association with child-rearing stress and therefore the need for parent training and deeper understanding of children in terms of causal attributions for children’s behavior.