This is a review of ten works so far done by the author. A unified molecular theory of entanglement of ring, linear and network polymers is constructed on the basis of topology of loops. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium topological distribution functions are derived and “topological second virial coefficients” of ring polymers, rigidities of network polymers, frictional coefficient of the centers of entangled linear polymers, etc. are computed and compared with experiments.
Viscoelastic flow of polymer melts and solutions was studied. One purpose was to establish a method for measurement of the first and the second normal stress differences. The first and the second normal stress differences were measured successfully by a method utilizing three-dimensional transmission light technique of flow birefringence for moderate range of shear rate of polymer melts. Slip velocities which have not been examined in spite of their importance, were measured by newly designed grooved nozzles. For PVC they ranged from a few mm/s to a few cm/s and their ratios to the average velocities over cross-section expressed clearly the effect of stabilizers. As the next application of flow birefringence to three dimensional flow, the scattered light system was used for measurements of whole distribution of the three kinds of the principal stress differences. Its availability was checked through measured torque values.
We present a critical review on research during the last generation on flow phenomena and structure development occurring in polymer processing operations. This is carried out using the methods of rheology and rheo-optics. We begin with a critical discussion of the rheological behavior of bulk polymer systems including flexible chain and liquid crystalline polymers as well as particle filled compounds. Experimental studies and theoretical models are considered. The characterization of molecular orientation is then carefully considered. Advances in process technology are reviewed and application to a range of processing operations including extrusion through dies, melt spinning, film extrusion, injection and blow molding and two phase melt flow including mixing are then critically discussed.