[Purpose] Based on the hypothesis that motor performance is higher when it is easier to grip a pole, we analyzed the quality of hand movements during a repetitive motor task (a total of 15 repetitions) when gripping poles with different cross‐sectional shapes (T-Grip and cylindrical poles). Subsequently, we conducted sensory evaluation to examine the influence of such a difference in the cross‐sectional shape on motor performance. [Participants and Methods] We instructed 20 healthy university students to perform the repetitive motor task, according to a certain rhythm, while gripping the 2 types of pole to measure their shoulder ranges of motion on both sides, and analyze their motor skills under the different grip conditions. [Results] There were no interactions between the hand (dominant/non-dominant) gripping a pole and its type. [Conclusion] Sensory information regarding hand movements to grip a pole, regardless of its cross-sectional shape, may not influence motor skills even when performing a follow-up task according to a rhythm.
[Purpose] This study evaluated the effect of a lung age measurement event on awareness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). [Participants and Methods] The subjects were 930 people who participated in a lung age measurement event sponsored by Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Each subject underwent lung age measurement and completed a questionnaire. Basic attributes, lung age, difference between lung and actual age, principal symptoms, experience of lung age measurement, and the smoking habits of the male participants were compared. Furthermore, the difference in COPD awareness before and after participation was assessed. [Results] 96% of the participants stated that they had knowledge of COPD after their participation. Participants with a difference between lung and actual age of ≥16 years were more likely to be current smokers, to suffer shortness of breath, and be aware of COPD, than those with a difference of <16 years. [Conclusion] A lung age measurement event is an effective method for improving the awareness of COPD of the general population, and it is important to increase such opportunities.
[Purpose] To confirm the agreement between exercise intensity levels determined using predictive equations based on Incremental Shuttle Walking Test (ISWT) results as part of exercise therapy and actual exercise loads. [Participants and Methods] We conducted the ISWT for 28 healthy young participants, and calculated their 70% oxygen consumption (VO2) levels using a relevant predictive equation for the test. They performed a constant load test task at exercise intensity levels requiring 70%VO2 under 3 different conditions: (1) on an ISWT course, (2) on a circular course, and (3) using a treadmill. [Results] When regarding the VO2 max level during the ISWT as 100%, the participants’ VO2 levels during the constant load test, representing their actual exercise loads, were approximately 80% under condition-(1) and approximately 70% under conditions-(2) and -(3). [Conclusion] The results suggest that courses without steep turns are more desirable for exercise therapy at exercise intensity levels requiring 70%VO2, determined using predictive equations based on walking distances in the ISWT.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the improvement factors of hip joint pain in patients with early stage hip osteoarthritis. [Participants and Methods] The participants were 39 patients with early stage hip osteoarthritis whose numerical rating scale of hip joint pain was over 4. The factors of hip joint pain at the 2-month assessment were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. [Results] The minimal joint space (odds ratio: 0.1), the range of motion of hip abduction at the first assessment (odds ratio: 1.5), subjective stiffness score at the 2 month assessment (odds ratio: 3.0), and the frequency of implementation of home exercise at the 2 month assessment (odds ratio: 0.3) were identified as factors of hip joint pain. [Conclusion] This research provides information which will lead to the establishment of a treatment strategy for pain in the early stages of osteoarthritis.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms of center of pressure (COP) management for initiating single leg squatting. [Participants and Methods] Nine healthy young males were categorized according to the initial anterior-posterior direction of their COP migration when initiating squatting. The COP location within the foot area, sagittal plane knee and ankle joint movements, and electromyographic activities of ankle joint muscles before and during squatting were analyzed. [Results] The COP of 5 subjects initially moved forward when initiating squatting, whereas the COP of the other 4 subjects initially moved backward. In the forward group, the COP was located in a significantly posterior position within the foot area before squatting and the EMG activities of the gastrocnemius significantly decreased after the movement started. [Conclusion] It is probable that the direction of initial COP migration depends on the COP positioning of the initial standing posture prior to initiating single leg squats.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the plane of arm elevation on the scapulohumeral rhythm of scapular tilt in healthy persons. [Participants and Methods] An optical motion tracking system and acromion marker cluster were used to assess the scapulohumeral rhythm of scapular tilt in the coronal, sagittal and scapular planes during elevation of the arm of fourteen healthy male college students. [Results] The scapulohumeral rhythm of scapular tilt was 1.9 ± 0.4:1 for abduction, 1.8 ± 0.5:1 for scaption, and 1.8 ± 0.4:1 for flexion. During the arm elevation phase, the plane of arm elevation didn’t affect the scapulohumeral rhythm of scapular tilt. [Conclusion] Regardless of the plane of arm elevation, it is possible to use the 2:1 ratio of scapulohumeral rhythm of scapular tilt as a clinical indicator.
[Purpose] To clarify the reason why the axillary pad often deviates from the axilla during double-crutch walking using a musculoskeletal simulator. [Participants and Methods] The subjects were five healthy young males without orthopedic disease. Movement during crutch walking was measured using a 3D motion analysis system. Based on the obtained data, muscle activity related to the shoulder joint during double-crutch walking was modeled using a musculoskeletal simulation. [Results] The shoulder joint was abducted in the crutch stance phase of all subjects. [Conclusion] The results suggest that crutch walking with the shoulder blades rotated downward may suppress the activity of the abductor muscle of the shoulder joint and the activity of the shoulder joint adductor muscle.
[Purpose] To objectively examine the guidance-related difficulties faced by clinical training supervisors (supervisors). [Participants and Methods] We conducted a questionnaire survey, asking physical therapists of 42 facilities to voluntarily respond. [Results] The most frequent difficulty faced by the respondents was <students’ poor qualities>, followed by <a lack of self-confidence in providing guidance> and <difficulty in identifying students’ problems>, in this order. In text mining-based analysis of their free descriptions, the most frequent word was “students”, followed by “guidance”, “reports”, “understanding”, and “training”, in this order. The results also revealed a strong correlation with frequent words that were characteristic and related to reporting guidance. Furthermore, geometric figures outlining the relationships among words were created. [Conclusion] It may be necessary to clarify the difficulties faced by supervisors, in order to improve the quality of physical therapy education.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify whether fear of falling is associated with instrumental activities of daily living or health-related quality of life in community-dwelling elderly female orthopedic outpatients. [Participants and Methods] The subjects of this study were 27 elderly females. Their grip strength was measured, and FES, FAI, GDS and SF-36 were assessed by a questionnaire. [Results] FES had significant correlations with grip strength, FAI, GDS and SF-36. [Conclusion] To decrease fear of falling, in addition to maintaining or increasing physical function, approaches for psychological health such as depression, and vitality and subjective view of health will also be necessary.
[Purpose] To clarify the relationship between preoperative physical functions and Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) scores at 6 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). [Participants and Methods] We examined 67 knees of 67 patients, who had undergone unilateral TKA or UKA, and were appropriate for assessment using the JKOM. To clarify the relationships among patient background factors, preoperative physical functions/gait/balance, and JKOM scores at 6 months after surgery, we performed multiple regression analysis, adopting the stepwise method. [Results] The patients’ JKOM scores at 6 months after surgery significantly varied, according to their preoperative TUG scores, levels of knee pain in rest on the operative side, and knee extensor strength on the non-operative side. [Conclusion] Preoperative TUG scores may be the most accurate predictor of patients’ QOL at 6 months after TKA or UKA.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify correlations between tongue pressure and respiratory function in the elderly undergoing day-care rehabilitation. [Participants and Methods] A total of 127 older adults (66 males and 61 females) from Nishinasuno General Home Care Center participated in the study. Correlations between tongue pressure and respiratory function were assessed. The following respiratory function parameters were measured: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0), FEV1.0/FVC ratio (FEV1.0%), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax), and maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax). [Results] Overall, tongue pressure exhibited correlations with all parameters. With respect to gender, it correlated with PImax and PEmax in males and with FEV1.0, PEFR, and PEmax in females, with moderate correlation coefficients. [Conclusion] Although the participants had various diseases, the results suggest that tongue pressure and respiratory functions may mutually influence one another. Gender-based features of tongue pressure may correlate with respiratory muscle strength in males and expiratory function in females.
[Purpose] We simultaneously treated several outpatients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) with individualized physical therapy, integrating group activities, and examined the outcomes of this program. [Participants and Methods] During the program, we held a 60-minute therapy session, including group activities, for 26 PD patients once a week for 12 weeks, and examined changes in their motor functions and QOL after the program. We also investigated their status of developing exercise habits after it. [Results] Marked improvements were observed in the number of steps need to walk 10 m, Six-minute walk distance (6MWD), and 2 subscales of the PDQ-39. Exercise habits were maintained at the time of a 6-month follow-up. [Conclusion] The physical therapy program, integrating group activities, may contribute to improvements in PD patients’ physical functions and QOL, in addition to helping them develop exercise habits.
[Purpose] Referring to the Clinical Competence Evaluation Scale in Physical Therapy, this study prepared a questionnaire survey to measure physical therapists’ consciousness when teaching clinical interns. [Participants and Methods] In total, 110 physical therapists working in hospitals or facilities within the Kanto area participated in this study. Using the online questionnaire survey, 44 answers to the following were obtained: (1) the respondent’s degree of consciousness when practicing (consciousness during practice); and (2) the respondent’s degree of consciousness when teaching (consciousness during guidance). [Results] The total score differed significantly between consciousness during practice and consciousness during guidance. There were also differences in category scores other than those of the categories of self-education and self-management. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that physical therapists’ consciousness is the same during practice and during guidance in attitude; however, their consciousness during guidance was lower than their consciousness during practice of a technique.
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effect of expiration and inspiration during motor imagery on the excitability of the spinal anterior horn cell. [Participants and Methods] Ten healthy young men (mean age, 19.5 ± 0.5 years) participated in this experiment. The subjects performed expiration and inspiration every 2 sec naturally. First, the F-wave was recorded with subjects in a resting condition. Next, the subjects practiced 50% maximum voluntary contraction of the pinch grip using visual feedback for 30 sec. Then, the F-wave was recorded again while the subjects performed motor imagery (motor imagery condition). The persistence and F/M amplitude ratio of the motor imagery condition were subtracted from their respective values of the resting condition. These value was defined for the variation of persistence and variation of F/M amplitude ratio. [Results] During motor imagery, the persistence and F/M amplitude ratio had higher values than those of the resting condition, but, no significant differences were observed in the variation of persistence and F/M amplitude ratio between expiration and inspiration. [Conclusion] The excitability of the spinal anterior horn cell during motor imagery showed no difference between the expiration and inspiration phases.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify and compare the effects of sustained exercise versus intermittent exercise on autonomic nervous activity and circulatory dynamics during exercise using a bicycle ergometer. [Participants and Methods] Seventeen healthy adults carried out both sustained exercise (30-minute steady-state exercise) and intermittent exercise (10 minutes exercise followed by 5 minutes rest, repeated 3 times). The exercise intensity was 50% of maximum oxygen uptake. The paired t-test was used to compare the minimum and maximum values of autonomic nervous activity and circulatory dynamics between the exercise modalities. The maximum value and minimum value were the average values of all the subjects. [Results] In the comparison of the maximum values of the modes of motion, the sympathetic nerve activity was high in intermittent motion and the heart rate was low. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a divergence occurs between heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity when intermittent exercise is performed.
[Purpose] To compare measurement errors when using portable (AE-100i) and stationary (AE-310S) metabolic systems. [Participants and Methods] We conducted an exercise load test for 23 health young persons to measure their VO2, VCO2, and VE levels using AE-100i and AE-310S. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between AE-100i and AE-310S was 0.98 in all VO2, VCO2, and VE measurements. In Bland‐Altman analysis, fixed bias was only observed in VCO2 measurement. The minimal important difference in each measurement was as follows: VO2: ± 4.2 ml/kg/min, VCO2: –4.9 to 3.3 ml/kg/min, and VE: ± 8.2 l/min. [Conclusion] The ICC between AE-100i and AE-310S was markedly high, and errors in measurement using the former were within a clinically acceptable range. On the other hand, the results suggest the importance of considering the minimal important difference when using this system in clinical settings.
[Purpose] As a recent trend, robots are increasingly drawing attention as rehabilitation devices. The ankle-assist device CoCoroe (AAD), which looks like a short leg brace with a motor attached to its joint part, is one of such robots. As there have been few reports on this AAD, we examined the activities of muscles supporting the body during gait, involving healthy individuals and using surface EMG, to collect basic data. [Participants and Methods] We performed measurement in 7 healthy males to measure their left and right spinal erectors, left and right gluteus maximus, left and right gluteus medius, and left rectus abdominis during barefoot gait and gait using the AAD (AAD gait). We compared the values obtained during each phase of the gait cycle between the 2 conditions. [Results] The activity of the left gluteus maximus markedly increased during the foot flat phase (ankle rocker period) of AAD gait. [Conclusion] The torque in midstance during AAD gait may have promoted the activity of the gluteus maximus. The results suggest that AAD gait promote the activities of muscles supporting the body.
[Purpose] To investigate relationships between body composition and nutrition in young females. [Participants and Methods] Forty young females were recruited in this study. Their body weights, BMIs, body fat ratios, muscle and fat masses of each of the four limbs, trunk and total body, protein, mineral, SMI, FFMI, and FMI were measured and compared, and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. [Results] The femalesʼ total muscle mass showed significantly high positive correlations with body weight, right and left arm, trunk, and right and left leg muscle masses, protein, mineral, SMI, and FFMI. [Conclusion] The results suggest that since declines in total muscle mass appear to be related to declines in protein and mineral in young females, measurements of muscle mass could be an indicator for understanding nutritional states.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an intervention to improve electromechanical delay (EMD) of the gluteus medius (GM) for Duchenne gait. [Participant] A woman in her 40s participated in this study 9 months after rotational acetabular osteotomy. This patient exhibited Duchenne gait, despite a grade of more than 4 in manual muscle testing (MMT) of abduction of the affected hip, and EMD of the affected GM was prolonged compared with the unaffected side. [Intervention] The patient performed maximal isometric contractions many times a day for 5 days. [Results] The EMD, rate of force development, and median power frequency of the affected GM improved and with that, the patient showed improvement in pelvic and trunk tilt during gait. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the intervention to improve EMD of the affected GM was effective for this patient with Duchenne gait, despite a grade of more than 4 in MMT of the affected side after surgery for hip osteoarthritis.
[Purpose] This paper reports 2 cases of 3D lower limb orthotic therapy for patients with post-stroke hemiplegia using an adjustable plastic knee ankle foot orthotic device, with a view to enhancing the recognition of this method as one of the orthotic therapy approaches. [Participants and Methods] One hemiplegic stroke patient during the early stage of the recovery phase and the other during the maintenance phase were assessed and treated with an adjustable plastic knee ankle foot orthotic device available at hospitals and a raising tool. [Results] The time needed for the patient during the early stage of the recovery phase to walk 10 m decreased from 40 to 7 seconds. He became able to walk outdoor independently in 16 weeks. The time needed for the other patient during the maintenance phase to walk 10 m remained unchanged, but the knee extension angle during the stance phase improved from −25 to 0° in 10 weeks. [Conclusion] 3D lower limb orthotic therapy using adjustable plastic knee ankle foot orthosis may provide a basis for selecting more appropriate orthotic devices.