Rigakuryoho Kagaku
Online ISSN : 2434-2807
Print ISSN : 1341-1667
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • Masashi ZENTA, Kenji TSUSHIMA, Tomohiro HATTORI, Yuki OGAWA, Kaede YOS ...
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 295-306
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) tend to be bedridden due to dyspnea, and consequently muscle atrophy becomes a concern. For the treatment of such patients, there has been interest in neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Since the effect of NMES on ILD patients has not been established, we examined the effect of NMES in combination with voluntary muscular contraction. [Participants and Methods] The participants were 58 ILD patients. The intervention group (n=25) received NMES, while the control group (n=33) received no intervention. In addition, a Nagasaki University ADL evaluation table (NRADL) total of 56 points or less was used to determine the NRADL low value group (n=36), and sub-analysis of the intervention and control groups was performed. Knee extension strength (QF), endurance (6MWD), NRADL, quality of life (QOL) were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] QF and 6MWD significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. Whereas, ADL and QOL showed no significant differences between the groups. In the sub-analysis, QF, 6MWD, NRADL and QOL significantly improved in the intervention group. [Conclusion] NMES for ILD was effective in improving muscle strength and endurance during hospitalization. Moreover, the effect of NMES was higher when the NRADL was 56 points or less.

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  • Toshiaki TAKAHASHI, Saori KATOU, Miho WATANABE, Tokiko NAGASE, Hideto ...
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 307-311
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    [Purpose] To quantify the angle of movement, distance travelled, and center-of-gravity (CoG) shift in each body part, and clarify compensatory movements when patients with spastic diplegia perform a reach. [Participants and Methods] Seven patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy and 8 healthy adults performed a reach as a task to measure the time needed to reach, distance travelled, angle of movement, and CoG sway. [Results] The distances travelled forward by the lower trunk and pelvis were shorter, and those travelled by the upper limb and upper trunk were longer in patients with spastic diplegia compared with healthy adults. Furthermore, in the former group, the maximum amplitude of sway was smaller, and its velocity was slower in the anteroposterior direction. [Conclusion] As compensatory movements for reaching in patients with spastic diplegia, the degree of anterior pelvis tilt is reduced, and the shoulder girdle and upper limb with higher mobility are excessively moved forward. During these movements, the trunk is fixed by excessive upper trunk flexion and neck extension.

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  • Katsuhiko SUZUKI, Takahiro SATO
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 313-316
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional shoe insoles on sagittal alignments of the spine and pelvis, and lateral abdominal muscles thickness in flatfeet. [Participants and Methods] Thirteen young asymptomatic adults with flatfeet were recruited. In standing, changes in the alignments with and without the insoles were recorded using Spinal Mouse. In static standing and lateral translation standing, the thickness of the external oblique muscle, the internal oblique muscle (IO) and the transversus abdominis (TrA) were measured with and without the insoles using ultrasound images. [Results] The sacral inclination and lumbar lordosis angles significantly decreased with the insoles, and the thicknesses of the TrA and IO increased significantly in both static standing and lateral translation standing. [Conclusion] The results suggest that functional shoe insoles for flatfeet may change the alignment of the lumbar spine and sacrum as well as hindfoot hyper-pronation, and increase the muscle activity of the TrA and IO muscles.

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  • Marina TODO, Toshiaki SUZUKI, Hitoshi ASAI
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 317-323
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The appearance of various waveforms is one of the characteristics of the F wave. In this study, in order to establish a method for analyzing the various waveforms, we first examined whether the amplitude values after addition average mean processing of F waves reflect the average amplitude values. [Participants and Methods] The subjects were 25 healthy people, aged 22.1 ± 2.1 years. In the resting state, 30 electrical stimulations were applied to the median nerve on the non-dominant hand side to derive the F wave from the APB. The amplitude value obtained using the addition average was compared with the average value of the amplitude of each waveform. [Results] The amplitude value obtained using the addition average mean processing method was significantly lower than the average amplitude value. [Conclusion] This result suggests that the amplitude values after addition average mean processing of F waves do not reflect the average amplitude value.

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  • Sota OMURA, Shigeki YOKOYAMA
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 325-329
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the evaluation method of thoracic kyphosis using a digital inclinometer. [Participants and Methods] Two examiners measured the thoracic kyphosis angle of 10 participants using a digital inclinometer. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities and minimum detectable change were determined using the measurement results. [Results] ICC (1,1) was 0.91–0.93, ICC (1,2) was 0.95–0.96, ICC (2,1) was 0.75–0.80, and ICC (2,2) was 0.91. The minimum detectable change of inter-rater reliability was lower when the mean value was measured twice than once. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the measurement of the thoracic kyphosis angle with a digital inclinometer could be used clinically with two or more measurements.

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  • Tatsuya HARANO, Shinya TAJIMA, Shota NISHIHARA, Yushin YOSHIZATO, Masa ...
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 331-335
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] To clarify the impacts of different sitting positions on lumbar multifidus muscle thickness and hardness. [Participants and Methods] The participants were 14 healthy adult males. Their lumbar multifidus muscle thickness and hardness were measured under 2 conditions: 1) adopting a study posture in a normal sitting position; and 2) maintaining a study posture in a normal sitting position for 5 minutes and returning to the normal position. There were 6 study postures: 1) good posture, 2) slouched posture, 3) on a balance disc, 4) on a balance ball, 5) crossing the right leg, and 6) crossing the left leg. Four measurements were performed in the 6 postures. Measurement values before and after each condition were compared, and the change rates among the postures were examined using a multiple comparison test. [Results] There were significant decreases in muscle thickness after adopting Postures 2, 5, and 6 under Condition 1 and Posture 1 under Condition 2. Multiple comparisons on the change rates among the postures revealed a significant increase in muscle thickness when adopting Posture 4 compared with 2 under Condition 1, and significantly lower muscle hardness when adopting Posture 6 compared with 2 under Condition 2. [Conclusion] Lumbar multifidus muscle thickness and hardness decreased after sitting while adopting a slouched posture.

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  • Souma TSUJISHITA, Tadaaki WAKUI
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 337-343
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of a monthly 3-month care prevention exercise program on quality of life (QOL), ikigai (meaning for life) and positive attitudes of elderly women, and to clarify the effects of exercise habit and high or low life purpose on QOL, ikigai and positive attitudes. [Participants and Methods] The purpose of life, quality of life, purpose in life, and positive attitude were investigated in 16 elderly women aged 65 years or older living in X city in the Kansai region. [Results] Before and after the program, all the values of the purpose of life, mental component summary, ikigai and positive attitude increased, but there were no significant differences. On the other hand, a group comparison of the values before and after the program showed significant differences in the mental component summary, ikigai and positive attitude before the program, and a significant difference only in ikigai after the program. [Conclusion] We speculate that having a high purpose in life is related to the mental component summary, ikigai and positive attitude, which provides an important suggestion when conducting care prevention for the elderly.

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  • Ryoko YASUDA, Toshiyuki KURIHARA, Yasushi SHINOHARA, Tadao ISAKA
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 345-352
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship in college baseball players between static alignment of the foot and dynamic balance in terms of the foot (pivoting, stepping) and position (pitcher, fielder). [Participants and Methods] The participants were 106 college baseball players (31 pitchers, 75 fielders). The static foot alignment indexes were the medial longitudinal arch height, the lateral angles of the first and fifth toes, the angle between the first and fifth toes, and the foot width/length ratio in the standing position, and the dynamic balance index was defined as the stabilization time of the center of gravity. [Results] The foot width/length ratio of the stepping foot of the pitchers was shorter than that of the fielders. There were no significant differences in dynamic balance between the positions. A significant correlation was found between the stepping foot width and the stepping foot width/length ratio and the time to stabilize the center of gravity after the forward stepping motion for the pitchers only. [Conclusion] The result suggests that the pitcher may reduce the load on the stepping foot and stabilize it by stiffening the forefoot lateral arch after the stepping foot contacts the ground.

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  • Tomohiro UEDA, Kazuhei NISHIMOTO, Takayuki KODAMA
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 353-360
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of detecting age-related decline in cognitive function from an early stage. Elderly people and healthy young people performed an inhibition function task, and their brain source localization and functional connectivity were compared. [Participants and Methods] Ten young people and six elderly people were recruited. We used the visual three-stimulus oddball task to calculate the event-related potential (ERP) component and analyzed it using exact low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA). [Results] In the elderly, the right temporal pole and the right frontal pole showed predominantly increased neural activity during the execution of the inhibitory function. On the other hand, in the younger subjects, the left precuneus and the left orbitofrontal cortex were the main areas of neural activity. Furthermore, functional connectivity showed a difference between the elderly and the young. [Conclusion] The results suggest that neurophysiological evaluation of inhibition function may detect age-related cognitive decline.

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  • Kenta HIRATSUKA, Takamichi TAMIYA, Shinji MATSUOKA, Kazushi KIMURA
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 361-367
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to reveal predictors of gait independence at 15 days after stroke onset using a functional assessment of patients and decision tree analysis at stroke onset. [Participants and Methods] A total of 612 acute stroke patients were enrolled in this study. A total of 26 independent variables were measured at stroke onset: age, gender, disease name, the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS), Short Form Berg Balance Scale (SFBBS) total score, Timed Up and Go Test-Reserve (TUG-R), cognitive Functional Independence Measure (FIM) total score and 10-meter walk test. The dependent variable was walking ability. Based on the data, a decision tree for predicting independence of gait 15 days after the onset of stroke was developed. [Results] The SFBBS, a balance assessment, was at the top of the scale, suggesting that it was a strong predictor of gait independence. The results also showed that each of the factors with low values had interrelationships with other factors as if to compensate for them. [Conclusion] These results suggest the importance of assessing balance and gait function in predicting gait in acute stroke.

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  • Kanako SUZUKI, Naomichi SHIOJIMA
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 369-373
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trunk anterior tilt restriction on scapula movement and finger vertebral distance during hand-behind-back movement. [Participants and Methods] Thirteen right-handed healthy adults were tested. The scapula tilt and rotation angle, sternum tilt angle, and finger vertebral distance were measured in natural sitting and in head-fixed sitting. The results were compared between the two conditions. [Results] The scapula anterior and downward rotation were smaller, the sternum posterior tilt was larger in the upper limb drooping position, and the finger vertebral distance was longer in hand-behind-back movement in head-fixed sitting than in natural sitting. [Conclusion] Restricting the trunk anterior tilt reduces the scapula anterior tilt and downward rotation, increases the sternum posterior tilt in the upper limb drooping position, and increases the finger vertebral distance in hand-behind-back movement.

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  • Tetsuya NOZAWA, Hideyuki USA, Toshimitsu NAKABAYASHI
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 375-381
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the changes in muscle properties and muscle function of the rectus femoris caused by transverse friction massage (TFM) and to analyze the relationship between them. [Participants and Methods] Muscle properties (tone, stiffness, elasticity) and muscle functions (range of motion of passive knee flexion, knee extension peak torque, electro-mechanical delay, rate of force development) of the rectus femoris muscle were measured at baseline and post-intervention in 26 healthy adult males under TFM and Control conditions. [Results] In the TFM condition, stiffness significantly decreased and the range of motion significantly increased. There was a positive and moderate correlation between stiffness and range of motion. [Conclusion] The results suggest that TFM of the rectus femoris muscle had an effect on stiffness and increased the range of motion.

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  • Itsuki MORIKAWA, Shin TAKESUE, Teerapapa LUECHA, Satoshi MURAKI
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 383-389
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of an over-pronated foot on lower-limb coordination patterns during walking, specifically the pronation/supination of the rear part of the foot (rearfoot) with shank and thigh rotations. [Participants and Methods] Thirty-two young adults were divided into two categories: over-pronation and normal. The motions of these participants were captured as they walked along a 10-m walkway. Based on the joint angles observed, the coordination between the rearfoot and shank, between the rearfoot and thigh, and between shank and thigh were calculated and classified into 4 patterns. Then, the frequencies of these patterns were compared between the two groups. [Results] During the loading response phase, the over-pronation group had more rearfoot pronation-and-thigh internal rotation pattern but less rearfoot supination-and-shank external rotation pattern. [Conclusion] These different coordination patterns of the lower extremities during the loading response phase due to over-pronated deformities might be related to the risk factors of injuries to the body parts proximal to the foot.

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  • Ryogo TAKAHASHI, Yidan DAI, Yoko UEDA, Shuang-Qin YI
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 391-395
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] To investigate the positional relationship and morphological characteristics of the acetabular labrum and the iliopsoas muscle by gross anatomy. [Participants and Methods] Twelve joints of 6 anatomical research and teaching cadavers (3 males and 3 females, mean age 87.2 ± 7.9 years) were used to measure the ventral and dorsal sides of the psoas major and iliac muscles, and the proportions of muscle and tendon were calculated. [Results] With respect to a total vertical length of 74.1 ± 6.6 mm, on the ventral side, the iliopsoas muscle was 74.1 ± 6.6 mm, the psoas major muscle was 34.3 ± 19.1 mm, and the psoas major muscle tendon was 39.8 ± 21.2 mm, while on the dorsal side it was 74.1 ± 6.6 mm. With respect to a total width of 38.6 ± 5.8 mm, on the ventral side, the iliacus muscle was 26.7 ± 5.2 mm and the psoas major muscle was 10.6 ± 3.7 mm, while on the dorsal side the psoas major muscle tendon was 16.8 ± 5.5 mm and the iliacus tendon was 8.8 ± 6.1 mm. [Conclusion] Most of the dorsal side of the iliopsoas muscle, which contacts the acetabular labrum, consisted of the psoas tendon.

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  • Kota KURABAYASHI, Toshio SOMA
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 397-402
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] To clarify the effect of ankle supporter use on the lower limb joints when landing on one leg. [Participants and Methods] Nine healthy adult males landed on their right leg with an ankle supporter from a platform with a height of 30 cm in 4 directions: in front of, behind, and on the left/right side of the platform. A 3-D motion analysis device and floor reaction force meter were used. Analysis was performed to calculate the lower limb joint angles, lower limb joint moments, and peak lower limb joint powers of the landing leg. [Results] The ankle joint power significantly decreased when landing in all directions with an ankle supporter, whereas the knee joint power significantly increased when landing in front of and on the right side of the platform with the supporter. [Conclusion] The results suggest that ankle supporter use reduces the load on the ankle joint when landing, but the knee joint covers impact absorption.

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  • Daisuke TOYODA, Kazuo KUROSAWA, Daiki FUKUDA, Tomohiro MIZUNO
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 403-408
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] To clarify position-related differences in the shoulder rotation range of motion (ROM) by comparing the passive shoulder rotation ROM among a total of 9 different positions, including the 1st and 2nd. [Participants and Methods] The rotation ROMs in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd positions and those between them and position-related differences in the values were examined, involving 60 shoulders of 60 healthy adults. [Results] The total rotation ROM was the greatest in the position with the shoulder abducted at 60˚, followed by the 2nd position and that with the shoulder horizontally flexed at 30˚, in this order. It was the smallest in the 1st position, followed by the 3rd and that with the shoulder flexed at 60˚. The internal rotation ROM decreased from the 2nd to 3rd position, whereas the external rotation ROM increased from the 1st to 2nd position, and decreased from the 1st position to that with the shoulder flexed at 60˚. [Conclusion] The results of this study may be useful as an index to identify time-course changes in patients’ conditions, as they make it easier to objectively understand how the rotation ROM changes with postural changes.

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  • Masaya NARA, Yuki SUZUMORI, Kensuke OBA, Mina SAMUKAWA
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 409-413
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the recognition of risk factors with throwing injury among high school baseball players. [Participants and Methods] A questionnaire containing questions about experiences of throwing injuries, recognition of risk factors and sources of information about the risk factors was distributed to high school students in Hokkaido. The responses were compared between injury and no-injury groups. [Results] In this survey, 483 players participated. Three hundred fourteen players (65.0%) reported experiences of throwing injuries. From 19.9% to 31.9% of them knew the risk factors of throwing injury. The most common source of information about the risk factors was medical institutions (59.1%), followed by the internet (26.9%). The medical institution responses were significantly higher in the injured group. [Conclusion] It is possible that risk factors are not recognized until after the occurrence of a pitching injury. The results suggest that it would be beneficial to conduct educational activities about throwing injury using the internet in the future.

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  • Naotoshi KIMURA, Daisuke HIRANO, Hana NOZAWA, Takamichi TANIGUCHI
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 415-419
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] This study was undertaken to clarify the effects of driving habits on perceived danger using changes in brain activity in the prefrontal area when watching videos for the prediction of danger while driving. [Participants and Methods] The subjects were 11 healthy adults: 5 subjects drove on a daily basis and 6 subjects did not. The subjects performed a control task of watching eye movements, and tasks of watching overtaking and not overtaking a bicycle while driving a car. Brain activity of the prefrontal cortex was measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). [Results] In the group with daily driving habits, a significant increase in brain activity in the prefrontal regions was observed when they watched the task of overtaking a bicycle, but in the group without daily driving habits, there was no significant change. [Conclusion] Brain activity when watching a car-driving danger prediction video was influenced by daily driving habits.

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  • Shojiro EGOSHI, Hirokazu KOKUBU, Akihiro KURIKI, Katsuki EGOU, Toshino ...
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 421-425
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate whether different swimming styles cause differences in respiratory function and thoracic cage expansion in swimmers. [Participants and Methods] A total of 89 first- to third-year high-school swimmers were included in this study. Respiratory function and thoracic expansion differences were compared between four swimming styles. [Results] The results show that the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) was significantly higher in freestyle than in backstroke. Conversely, the difference in thoracic expansion at the level of the 10th rib was significantly higher in backstroke than in freestyle. [Conclusion] These results suggest that increasing the FEV1/FVC ratio may be necessary in freestyle, whereas increasing the mobility of the lower rib cage may be necessary in backstroke to improve athletic performance.

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  • Satoshi OKUBO, Tomoya UCHIDA
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 427-431
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of posture control of young patients with low back pain (LBP) in unstable sitting and standing. [Participants and Methods] The subjects were 46 young patients with non-specific LBP and 47 healthy university students. Each subject performed the sitting and standing tasks on unstable surfaces with a balance cushion. The total locus length (LNG), outer peripheral area (ENV. AREA), and length per unit area (LNG/ENV.AREA) of the center of pressure were measured using a stabilometer. [Results] In the sitting position, LNG and ENV. AREA were significantly greater and LNG/ENV.AREA was significantly smaller in the LBP group than in the healthy group. In the standing position, there was no significant difference between the two groups in any parameter. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the patients with LBP had decreased postural control function of the trunk.

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  • Takanao SHIRAI, Tomohito IJIRI, Toshiaki SUZUKI
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 433-437
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] Scapular anterior tilt and downward rotation are important in the hand-behind-back motion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the hand-behind-back motion when the upper trapezius muscle fibers involved in the scapular anterior tilt and downward rotation can not be relaxed. [Participants and Methods] The upper trapezius fibers of 20 healthy adults were electrically stimulated reproducing a state in which relaxation is not possible, and they performed hand-behind-back motion as well as the hand-behind-back motion without the electrical stimulation. Shoulder joint abduction, extension, internal rotation, scapular anterior tilt, upward rotation, and hand-behind-back motion distance were compared. [Results] Electrical stimulation caused prolongation of the hand-behind-back motion distance, decrease in the scapular anterior tilt angle, and increase in the upward rotation angle. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the muscle tone of the upper trapezius fibers and scapular motion are important in hand-behind-back motion.

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  • Hideyuki NAKAE, Masayuki SOMA, Sumi MISAWA
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 439-446
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the present situation and clarify problems regarding medication, food and nutrition of home care Parkinson’s disease patients. [Participants and Methods] The study performed postal surveys of 147 home-care Parkinson’s disease patients. [Results] 23.1% of the respondents had forgotten to take medication, especially during lunch time. The duration of illness of those who forgot to take medication was significantly longer than that of those who hadn’t. The weight change from the time when the patient was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease was -4.4 ± 6.1 kg on average. The Body Mass Index was significantly lower in the long-term care insurance service user group than among those outside the group, and also in the group with fall history compared to those with no fall history. [Conclusion] These results suggest that long-term care insurance service users and patients with fall history need a support system for items like nutritional management as well as rehabilitation.

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  • Yasumitsu UMEDA, Yoshiharu NAGAI, Masami NAKAHARA
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 447-451
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether preoperative physical and psychological factors of patients are associated with postoperative contralateral knee joint pain after unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). [Participants and Methods] The participants were 43 patients who underwent unilateral TKA. The study investigated the relationship between preoperative physical factors, quality of life rating scale, and psychological factors on the presence of postoperative contralateral knee pain. [Results] Pain at 3 months postoperatively was related to rumination on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and usual activities on the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM). [Conclusion] The results suggest that preoperative PCS rumination and JKOM usual activities may be predictors of the presence of contralateral knee pain at 3 months postoperatively.

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  • Junji DEGUCHI, Hajime MIURA, Yasuaki TAMURA, Mizuki ISHIKAWA, Ayako MU ...
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 453-456
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise before a task on the ability to coordinate exertion of force (ACEF). [Participants and Methods] Ten healthy males and 5 females performed two trials in a random order: 10-minutes cycling at 60%VO2 max (AE), and sitting without exercise (CON). The ACEF effect was evaluated using a continuous visual isometric grip task, and seven different force trials were performed 8 times each, a total of 56 times. [Results] In the AE trial the number of successful grip tasks significantly increased after 1 and 24 hours compared to the pre-test value; however, there were no significant changes in the CON trial. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise before a task may enhance the promotion and retention of ACEF.

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  • Kosuke NAKANISHI, Toshiaki SUZUKI
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 457-461
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The effect of individual differences in the clarity of motor imagery on the excitability of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord during motor imagery of toe flexion using still images was examined using the F-wave. [Participants and Methods] A total of 18 healthy adults participated in this study. The participant’s imagery clarity was scored using a Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ). The exercise imagery task was left toe flexion exercise with and without a still images of the left toe flexion position. The value of the F/M amplitude ratio of the motor imagery task, relative to an at rest value of 1, was used as the relative value of the F/M amplitude ratio, and the relationship between the relative value of the F/M amplitude ratio and the VMIQ score of each task with and without still images was examined. [Results] A positive correlation was found between the relative F/M amplitude ratio of the task without still images and the VMIQ score, and a negative correlation was found between the relative F/M amplitude ratio and the VMIQ score of the task with still images. [Conclusion] The results suggest that motor imagery using still images of the flexor hallucis longus has less effect on the excitability of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord of individuals with lower image clarity.

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  • Yui MORITA, Ryo MIYACHI, Toshiaki YAMAZAKI
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 463-466
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
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    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of loading frequency on the recovery process of disuse muscle atrophy. [Participants and Methods] Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were used. Loading was performed for 60-minutes once a day in the once-loaded group, and for 30-minutes twice a day in the twice-loaded group. After the completion of the experiment, cross-sectional areas of muscle fibers and the ratio of necrotic and central nuclear fibers of the right soleus muscles were measured. [Results] The cross-sectional areas of muscle fibers and the ratio of central nuclear fibers of the twice-loaded group were significantly greater than those of the once-loaded group. There was no significant difference in the ratio of necrotic fibers. [Conclusion] The results suggest that increasing the loading frequency facilitates recovery from muscle disuse atrophy.

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CASE STUDY
  • Ryo ONUMA, Yuki SOUTOME, Mizue KIMURA, Tadamitsu MATSUDA, Sachiko NELS ...
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 467-472
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    [Purpose] We investigated the effect of combined botulinum toxin injections (BoNT-A) and integrated volitional control electrical stimulation (IVES) in a chronic stroke patient. [Patient and Methods] The patient, a 70-year-old man living at home and receiving care support, was diagnosed as having right thalamic hemorrhage (left hemiplegia and higher brain dysfunction). He was discharged to home and was confined to a wheelchair with family assistance. After BoNT-A, he received IVES in addition to the usual physical therapy. Before and after BoNT-A, and at 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months, evaluations using the Brunnstrom stage (Brs), range of motion test (ROMt), Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Line cancellation and bisection test, and Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) were performed. In addition, a physical therapist evaluated the patient’s reach and transfer movement, and examined change over time. [Results] Improvements in ROMt, MAS, and FMA were seen after the BoNT-A injection. The patient’s performance in the line representational bisection task and CBS also improved. For transfer movement, he became capable of transfer by grasping a handrail with both hands. [Conclusion] Combined therapy of BoNT-A and IVES improved the patient’s long-term active function of the upper limbs, increasing his ability to use his left hand, and his symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect.

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  • Daisuke SUDO, Naoshi OGATA, Yuji HONDA
    2021 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 473-477
    Published: 2021
    Released: June 20, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    [Purpose] This paper reports a case of support for returning to work, where open nephrectomy for left kidney cancer caused dissection limited to the abdominal aorta, resulting in incomplete paraplegia and right above‐knee amputation. [Patient and Methods] The patient was a 44-year-old male with left kidney cancer, who had been working as a practicing judo therapist. To help him return to work despite incomplete paraplegia and right above‐knee amputation as multiple disabilities, seating and interprofessional collaboration approaches were provided. [Results] Standard wheelchair use caused pressure pain in the sacral and coccygeal regions, making it difficult to expand the patient’s activities of daily living (ADL). To reduce such pain, evaluation to design a wheelchair was initiated in outpatient seating services. As conventional cushions did not suffice, a sponge foam sheet was shaped to fit the patient’s hip angle for pain relief. These approaches effectively reduced pain, and enabled the patient to perform ADL independently again. After home and workplace modifications, he returned to work as a judo therapist. [Conclusion] Wheelchair seating and home/workplace modifications were effective for the patient to return to work as a judo therapist.

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