[Purpose] This study assessed the influence of frailty at one month pre-hospitalization on exercise capacity at discharge of postoperative cardiac surgery patients. [Participants and Methods] The participants were 32 postoperative cardiac surgery patients aged over 60 years who underwent scheduled open heart surgery. The subjects were categorized into two groups, a frail group (11 patients) and a non-frail group (21 patients), based on a cutoff of 8 points on the Kihon Check List (KCL). Pre-hospital frailty was investigated postoperatively using the KCL with a recall method. The groups were compared in terms of 6-minute walking distance, 4-m walking speed, grip strength, and knee extension muscle strength at hospital discharge. [Results] Patients with pre-hospital frailty accounted for 34.4% of the total. The frail group showed significantly lower 6-minute walking distance, 4-m walking speed, grip strength, and knee extension muscle strength. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the KCL score was a factor affecting the 6-minute walking distance. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the exercise tolerance of cardiac surgery patients at hospital discharge is affected by pre-hospital frailty.
[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the relationship between menstrual-associated symptoms and lifestyle in female judo athletes by menstrual period. [Participants and Methods] One hundred sixty-nine female judo players aged 18 to 21 years were surveyed using a questionnaire consisting of profile, judo practice, and lifestyle, and a questionnaire on menstruation-related symptoms (MDQ). [Results] The results showed a negative correlation between the total score of the MDQ before and during menstruation and the amount of sleep on weekdays. Female judo players who slept less on weekdays showed higher scores of menstrual-associated symptoms. [Conclusion] Since female judo players show worsening of menstrual symptoms before and during menstruation, it is necessary to review their lifestyle, including sleep duration.
[Purpose] A questionnaire survey of the status of newcomer education conducted at rehabilitation facilities was conducted to clarify the actual conditions and issues in newcomer education. [Participants and Methods] Questionnaires were mailed to 300 rehabilitation facilities in Tokyo with at least 5 physical therapists, and 58 facilities responded. Newcomer education was compared between facilities with an achievement level of 7 or higher (high achievement group) those with an achievement level of 6 or lower (low achievement group), and the fields of work were divided into four groups for comparison. [Results] The high achievement group was significantly higher in terms of number of staff, establishment of an education department, completion of the newcomer training program by all instructors, and the use of evaluation forms. [Conclusion] Since the environment differs from facility to facility, it is necessary to consider methods of educating newcomers that are suited to the environment of each facility.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of aging on muscle regeneration in rats. [Participants and Methods] Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of 10-week-old, 24-week-old, and 95-week-old animals. We administered a cardiotoxin to the soleus of the rats to create a skeletal muscle injury model, and physiological analysis and histological analysis was performed at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 28 days after cardiotoxin administration. [Results] The cross-sectional area of the injured skeletal muscle increased over time in all of the groups, but it was observed earlier in the younger groups. The number of Pax7 positive cells peaked in the 10-week-old- and 24-week-old groups on day 4 after cardiotoxin administration, but the peak was delayed in the 95-week-old group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that skeletal muscle hypertrophy and the number of muscle satellite cells expressed decreases with aging.
[Purpose] This study investigated whether inhibition of unilateral vestibular function by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) facilitates center-of-gravity (CoG) displacement. [Participants and Methods] Ten healthy individuals participated in this study. During a CoG displacement task, the subjects received 3 minutes cathodal tDCS applied to the right mastoid (tDCS condition) or first 30 seconds sham stimulation. The center of pressure (CoP), the weight load ratio, and the EMG of the lower leg were compared between pre- and post-stimulation. [Results] CoP and weight load ratio were significantly shifted to the right by the tDCS. [Conclusion] Vestibular tDCS might be a possible clinical intervention for the correction of displaced standing posture.
[Purpose] We examined whether there is a relationship between students’ behavioral level in the training facility and their personality. [Participants and Methods] After 8 weeks of clinical training for 78 fourth grade students in the Department of Physical Therapy, University A, we examined the relationship between the 5 types of personality determined by the K-T personality test and the behavioral level in the training facility by independent self-evaluation. [Results] Self-suppressive types showed a significant negative correlation in 24 of the 37 behavioral levels, with the strongest relationship, and the highest-scoring personality being lower than the others. [Conclusion] The results suggest that for Self-suppressive types, teachers and training instructors need to share information and pay attention to guidance.
[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the effects of foot sensory training on the somatosensory perception of the sole of the feet of healthy young adults. [Participants and Methods] The participants were 26 healthy young adults. For the intervention, they sat with their eyes closed and their feet on a multiaxial instability plate. Local pressure was randomly applied to the soles of the subjects’ feet, and the subjects were asked to identify the location of the pressure. The tactile pressure and two-point discrimination of the sole (big toe, little toe, heel) were measured and compared before and after the intervention. [Results] After the intervention, the two-point discrimination sensation of the sole (big toe, little toe, heel) improved. [Conclusion] The results suggest that foot sensory training immediately improves the sensory function of the sole.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms and related factors in fishermen. [Participants and Methods] Forty-three fishermen participated in a survey which investigated the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the past 12 months, individual factors, working factors, and psychosocial factors. [Results] The incidences of musculoskeletal symptoms among fishermen were: low back (83.7%), hands/wrists (60.5%), and shoulders (53.5%). These musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with age, years of employment, occupational work, and stress in relationships. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the physical load of work, differences in work dependent on age, and relationships are related to the development of musculoskeletal symptoms in fishermen.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of hyperkyphosis in elementary school students. [Participants and Methods] A study of 83 elementary school students was conducted. A Spinal Mouse was used to measure their thoracic kyphosis angle, lumbar lordosis angle and sacral anteversion in an upright position. Hyperkyphosis was defined as a thoracic kyphosis angle of >40° and the participants were assigned to hyperkyphosis and non-hyperkyphosis groups on this basis. [Results] The prevalence of hyperkyphosis was approximately 30%. The thoracic kyphosis angles (upper thoracic and lower thoracic) and lumbar kyphosis angles were significantly higher in the hyperkyphosis group, compared to the non-hyperkyphosis group. Moreover, the upper thoracic spine had a significantly higher angle than the lower thoracic spine in the hyperkyphosis group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate an approximately 30% prevalence of hyperkyphosis and suggest that the upper thoracic spine may be characterized by a greater degree of kyphosis.
[Purpose] To develop an index that represents the characteristics of mentoring behavior of physical therapists, and to verify its reliability and validity. [Participants and Methods] An anonymous web questionnaire survey was conducted, involving physical therapists with a work experience of 5 years or longer, who provided clinical services and had supervised other employees. After examining the reliability and factorial validity of the scale by exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis was performed based on the obtained factor model. [Results] Analysis of 401 valid responses identified 5 factors: “effective education support”, “mental support”, “professional morality”, “model functions”, and “career support”, which confirmed sufficient reliability and validity. [Conclusion] The necessity of providing psychological/social support and training mentors in the physical therapist training process was suggested.
[Purpose] In this study, we aimed to verify the trunk motion characteristics of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) made by post-stroke hemiplegic patients at gait initiation. [Participants and Methods] The participants were 10 elderly controls and 30 stroke patients. Measurements were made using a center of gravity measurement instrument, a surface electromyograph, and an accelerometer. Accelerometers were attached to the neck (C7), lower back (L3) and pelvis (S1), and surface electromyograms of the bilateral gluteus medius and erector spinae muscles were recorded. [Results] In the elderly controls, activities of the stepping side gluteus medius and stance side erector spinae were recognized prior to the onset of movement of the center of pressure. Increased latency of the paretic gluteus medius muscle was observed when stroke patients led with the paretic leg, and the paretic erector spinae muscle when the non-paretic leg led. Accelerometer analysis showed displacement of the upper trunk toward the stepping side in the stroke patients when the non-paretic leg led, and to the stance side when the paretic leg led. [Conclusion] APAs of the stroke patients at gait initiation were characterized by delay of trunk muscle activity and upper trunk displacement.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acupressure strength on muscle hardness. [Participants and Methods] Both legs of 21 healthy adult males (n=42) were investigated in this study. Acupressure strengths of 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg (equivalent to 830, 1440, 1990, and 2230 g/cm2, respectively) were applied to the tibialis anterior muscle of each leg for 60 s. The acupressure point on the tibialis anterior was at 25% of the length of the lower leg from the inferior edge of the patella. Muscle hardness was measured using a muscle hardness meter at the acupressure point and 3 cm away from it before, and at 10 s and 5 min after acupressure. [Results] At both points, muscle hardness after acupressure (at 10 s and 5 min) was significantly lower than before acupressure at strengths of 2 kg or more. However, there was no difference in the tibialis anterior muscle hardness nor in the magnitude of change among the different acupressure strengths. [Conclusion] Muscle hardness can be effectively reduced using an acupressure strength of 2 kg.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of Nordic walking (NW) and T-shaped cane walking on gait and posture. [Participants and Methods] The subjects were 20 healthy young adults who had no experience of NW. Walking on a treadmill was performed under three conditions: NW, walking with a T-shaped cane, and walking without a cane. The walking speed was set as a comfortable walking speed. The angles of each part of the body (neck, trunk, hip joint, and knee joint) were calculated using a motion capture system and compared. [Results] The maximum flexion of the neck during walking with a T-shaped cane was significantly larger than that of normal walking. In NW, the maximum knee flexion during walking was significantly smaller. [Conclusion] The results suggest that NW may be more effective for patients with cervical disease and knee joint disease when reduction of mechanical load is desired.
[Purpose] To clarify the relationships between the kinetic and kinematic characteristics of movement and landing sound during a single-leg landing. [Participants and Methods] Thirteen healthy young adult males were instructed to step off from a 30-cm-high platform, and land on one leg normally (Normal: N) and as quietly as possible (Quiet: Q). The vertical ground reaction force, knee valgus moment, maximum knee flexion angle and value at 40 msec after landing, knee/hip/ankle ranges of motion from start to completion of landing, loading rate, and highest landing sound level when landing under the 2 conditions were measured. [Results] The values representing the landing sound, vertical ground reaction force, peak knee valgus moment, and loading rate were significantly higher, and those representing the maximum knee flexion angle and hip/knee/ankle ranges of motions were significantly lower under the N than Q condition. [Conclusion] The results suggest a correlation between the kinetic and kinematic characteristics of movement and landing sound during a single-leg landing.