[Objective] To analyze the circumstances of accidental falls, including the time, place, and type of falls, among elderly persons in residential care institutions. [Participants] One hundred and forty six residents of 7 institutions. [Design] Retrospective design. [Procedure] Fall events in the past year in the accident reports of each institution were analyzed. [Results] There were reports of 209 falls by 74 participants. Most falls occurred in the participant’s room. The most frequent type of fall was from a standing or walking position. The peak occurrences were at 06:00, 09:00, and 19:00 hr. The time-line analysis showed that falls around the bed in the participant’s room, especially during transfer to or from bed, frequently occurred at night. However, many daytime falls were associated with activities in the dining room, corridors, and the toilet. Falls were most frequent when the participant moved in association with getting in or out of bed, breakfast, drinking tea, and dinner. [Discussion] Since the circumstances in which falls occurred varied with the daily schedule of life at the institution, a fall prevention program should be developed that takes into account the schedule of life at the individual institution.
This study investigated same-sex friendship (actual and expectant friendship) and its gender differences among older men and women. This study also examined the relation of actual friendship, expectant friendship, and the differences between both friendships to subjective well-being. Participants were 337 men and 377 women ranging in age from 59 to 84. As a result of factor analysis, two factors were extracted: comfortable relationship and useful relationship. Women’s friendship was more comfortable and useful than men’s. Women expected more comfortable and useful relationships than men did. The more comfortable or the more useful their relationships were, the higher was their subjective well-being. The more comfortable relationship they expected, the higher was their subjective well-being. These results were not different between men and women. Men whose actual useful relationships were above the expectant were happier than men whose actual useful relationships were below the expectant. These gender differences are discussed.
This study’s purpose was to clarify the association between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia-(BPSD)-, and interventions to reduce them. A questionnaire survey was conducted regarding the cases in which BPSD were reduced and 130 cases were examined by a multiple correspondence analysis.
As a result, BPSD and related effective interventions were divided into four groups. Group 1 included BPSD with aggressive behaviours and the interventions aimed at calming the clients down. Group 2 included BPSD, in which the problems are mainly confusion and disorientation and the interventions to stimulate clients’ socialization and usage of their abilities. Group 3 was composed of BPSD mainly associated with biological causes and interventions to avoid conflicts and to build a steady life style. Group 4 included only one type of BPSD, delusion of persecution. The intervention to compensate hearing loss was suggested as effective to reduce it.
In this study, the authors observed everyday interactions with others among seniors living in a Japanese urban area. Home-visit interviews were completed for 440 seniors, aged 75 years or older, living alone in a Suginami City, Tokyo (response rate was 56.2%).
The major findings were as follows: (1) the majority of the respondents had daily interactions with non-kin others, (2) because many of the non-kin others having daily contacts were “neighbors” or “friends”, they were familiar persons who had frequent contacts, (3) the contents of conversation with them were more likely to be light or customary than emotional, and (4) many of the daily interactions with non-kin others were role-based interactions.
The concept of generativity was advocated by Erik Erikson. This is the concept that connects caring for the next generation and psychosocial adaptation and has been energetically studied in social sciences. It has been reported that not only midlife, which Erikson discussed at first, but also old age has various meanings in human life. However, the mechanism of psychosocial adaptation has not been fully elucidated. This article clarifies a framework for generativity research in old age to deal with issues of psychosocial adaptation. First, the argument about the concept of generativity and the empirical studies that connects generativity with psychosocial adaptation in midlife are reviewed. Second, the arguments about the concept and empirical study of generativity in old age are reviewed, and issues about examining the mechanism of psychosocial adaptation are clarified. Finally, to clarify the mechanism of psychosocial adaptation of generativity in old age, the framework of narrative approach is optimized from the viewpoint of the nature of tense in elderly people’s thinking.