Objective: In order to prevent ischemic heart disease in working adult males, we analyzed risk factors by age groups based on data from an eight-year follow-up study of male employees enrolled in the Denso Health Insurance Program. Subjects and Methods: Of the 27,945 male employees aged 30 to 55 enrolled in the program in 2003, the data of 19,742 (70.6%) who underwent regular health checkups were analyzed. Information obtained from health insurance claims for hospitalization and cause of death from discontinuation data were used to analyze risk factors for ischemic heart disease by age group. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from Cox proportional-hazards models. Results: In males aged 30–39 years, a BMI of 25.0–27.5 was associated with a 2.21 higher risk of ischemic heart disease (95%CI: 1.01–4.84) than those not overweight (BMI of <25.0); LDL of 160 mg/dl or more was associated with a 3.85 higher risk (95%CI:1.62–9.14) than LDL of less than 120 mg/dl; and FPG of 160 mg/dl or more was associated with a 6.43 higher risk (95%CI: 1.02–40.63) than a FPG of less than 110 mg/dl. For males aged 40–55 years, higher LDL was a risk factor of ischemic heart disease (1.95 (95%CI: 1.28–2.98) and 1.97 (95%CI: 1.34–2.90) for LDL of more than 160 mg/dl and 140–159 mg/dl, respectively), compared to those with LDL of less than 120 mg/dl. In the same age group, compared to those unaffected, the risk of ischemic heart disease was 1.94 times higher (95%CI: 1.27–2.97) and 1.61 times higher (95%CI: 1.08–2.40) for those treated for hypertension and hyperlipidemia, respectively. Furthermore, compared to non-smokers, those smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day had 3.12 higher risk (95%CI: 1.21–8.06) and 1.81 higher risk (95%CI: 1.25–2.62) of ischemic heart disease in the 30–39 and 40–55 years age groups, respectively. Interaction effects with age group were not significant. Discussion: In males aged 30–39 years having a high BMI, LDL, FPG, and smoking more than 20 cigarettes increased the risk of ischemic heart disease. For males aged 40–55 years taking medication for hypertension and hyperlipidemia increased the risk. To prevent ischemic heart disease during the prime of life, offering support for weight control and stopping smoking is necessary in younger age groups. Moreover, implementing a long-term risk management plan to prevent the onset of hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia is also important.
Objectives: “Regular visiting/on-demand response type long-term care” has recently been established. This will lead to a decrease in the burden on the family, but an increase in the burden of the care personnel who provide this kind of long-term care. The objectives of this study were to clarify the fatigue symptoms of long-term care workers in facilities that provide this kind of long-term care, and examine the related factors in the workplace. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted with 96 workers engaged in long-term care in facilities. The questionnaire was composed of cumulative fatigue symptoms index, work situation, supports in the workplace, and the attributes. The subjects were divided into two groups: those who had night shift between PM 6 to AM 8 with or without day shift (night shift group), and those who had only day shift (day shift group). The relationships between the fatigue symptom levels and work situation etc. were compared between the two groups. Results: The night shift group consisted of 47 workers, whose mean age was 42.3 years and whose mean working experience was 6.0 years. The median number of persons they had visited in the previous month was 9. The day shift group consisted of 49 workers, whose mean age was 44.6 years and whose mean working experience was 5.9 years. The median number of persons they visited in the previous month was 9.5. Age and sex distributions showed no difference between the two groups. There was no difference in the work situations and the supports in the workplace, except for working time and the details of care the subjects were providing. The fatigue symptom levels were high in both groups, but in the night shift group the level of physical disorders was higher than in the day shift group. Satisfaction with work, education and training for mental health and consideration for traffic safety when making home visits were negatively related to fatigue symptom levels in both groups. Learning care during the previous year, and the ease of receiving paid holiday were not related to the fatigue symptom levels in the night shift group. This was different in the day shift group. Conclusions: Measures of fatigue symptoms should be performed for both groups. It is desirable that supports, additional to that given in the workplace to the day shift group, be given to the night shift group, and its efficacy be researched.
Introduction: We investigated the 2-year survival rate and incidence of spontaneous tumors in F344/DuCrlCrlj rats used in carcinogenicity studies of chemical substances. Records for animals used in the control groups of carcinogenicity studies which were conducted during the last 10 years were obtained from the database of the Japan Bioassay Research Center (JBRC). Six hundred ninety-nine males and 550 females were used in 14 and 11 inhalation studies, respectively, and 500 animals of each sex were used in 10 male and 10 female oral studies. Methods: In each study, SPF (specific pathogen free) animals were housed for 2 years (104 weeks) as control groups in the carcinogenicity studies. All animals underwent necropsy and histopathological examination. Each study was conducted in accordance with the Good Laboratory Practice. Results: The incidence of interstitial cell tumors was highest in both inhalation studies and oral studies (inhalation studies 86.1%, oral studies 68.6%). Tumors which had an incidence of 6% or higher were adenoma of the pituitary, C-cell adenoma of the thyroid, and mononuclear cell leukemia (LGL leukemia) of the spleen in male and female rats; fibroma of the subcutaneous tissue, adrenal pheochromocytoma, and islet cell adenoma of the pancreas in male rats; and endometrial stromal polyps and fibroadenoma of the mammary gland in female rats. Tumors other than the above had rare incidence rates. A clear difference in the incidence of spontaneous tumors was not observed between the inhalation and oral studies. The incidences of spontaneous tumors in control groups of previous oral studies are similar to our findings. There are no other reports of the spontaneous tumor incidence in the control groups of inhalation studies using F344/DuCrlCrlj rats. The 2-year survival rate was about 77% in both the inhalation and oral studies, and a gender difference was not observed. The F344/DuCrlCrlj rats used at JBRC had a higher 2-year survival rate than F344/N rats. This difference is possibly due to the low incidence of LGL leukemia in the F344/DuCrlCrlj rat. Conclusions: The incidences of spontaneous tumors in F344/DuCrlCrlj rats used in control groups of both inhalation and oral studies during the last 10 years at JBRC are similar to each other and similar to those reported in other studies. This is the first report on the incidence of spontaneous tumors in inhalation studies and contributes to the toxicological evaluation of studies using F344/DuCrlCrlj rats.
Objectives: We examined the effects on employee vegetable intake of a long-term intervention in an employee work cafeteria. Methods: Thesubjects were approximately 1,200 employees (aged 19–61 years) of an industrial company in Fukui prefecture. We promoted the intake of typical Japanese style meals that combined three elements (staple foods, main dishes and vegetable dishes) to increase vegetables intake. We displayed all items on the menus of the employee cafeteria using three colors (yellow, red and green to denote three elements) to indicate healthy food choices for the maintenance of a healthy food environment. We advised employees to choose meals containing the three elements at the time of payment, for nutritional education (appropriate portion choice: APC). We evaluated the ratio of APC at the same time. To calculate the mean daily intake per person, we carried out a questionnaire survey similar to the “semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire” and asked about the frequency and approximate intake of vegetables. Results: TheAPC was 63.5% after one year of intervention, significantly increased to 82.1% after two years (p < 0.001), and was 80.0% after three years of intervention (p < 0.001). Vegetable intake at breakfast (p < 0.001), lunch (p < 0.001) and dinner (p = 0.011), and from vegetable juice (p = 0.030) significantly increased after three years of intervention. The consumption of pickles significantly decreased after three years of intervention (p = 0.009). It was estimated that the vegetable intake of men increased from 167.3 to 184.6 g, and that of women from 157.9 to 187.7 g. Conclusions: Employee estimated vegetable intake was significantly increased and that of pickles was significantly decreased by a long-term intervention (three years) in the employee work cafeteria.