Objective: We aimed to analyze the impact of drinking and smoking behavior on the risk of developing cerebrovascular diseases among male employees aged 20-46 years. Twenty years of follow-up data of male employees enrolled in the DENSO Health Insurance Program were used for analyses. Subjects and Methods: Of 29,048 male employees aged 20-46 years who were enrolled in the insurance program in 1994, 25,084 (86.4%) employees underwent annual health check-ups until 2003 without missing an appointment. Of these 25,084 employees, the data of 11,784 (40.6%) employees who self-reported drinking and smoking habits were used for analyses. The hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing cerebrovascular disease in 2004-2013 were calculated in four risk groups categorized as per drinking and smoking behavior in the young group who were in their 20s and the middle-aged group who were in their 30s-40s in 1994. Based on their drinking behavior, participants were categorized into two groups: "not drinking or drinking sometimes" and "drinking every day." Based on their smoking behavior, participants were also categorized into two groups: "not smoking for 10 years" and "smoking for 10 years." Results: A Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that after controlling for body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and age, the hazard ratios for "smoking and drinking every day" were 3.82 (95% CI: 1.40-10.41) in the young group and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.27-4.17) in the middle-aged group. Discussion: Male employees who had been drinking and smoking for 10 years had a higher risk of developing cerebrovascular diseases. To prevent cerebrovascular diseases among male employees, it may be effective to offer behavior change interventions for both drinking and smoking habits, regardless of the age group.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the antineoplastic drug content in urine and verify the situation of occupational exposure of the antineoplastic drug among nurses who care for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: Ten female nurses who were caring for patients receiving chemotherapy were the subjects of this study. Urine samples were collected over 24-hour periods, and each sample was analyzed. The excretion of cyclophosphamide (CP) and α-fluoro-β-alanine (FBAL) were measured in the urine of the 10 nurses. CP and FBAL were detected separately using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MSMS) methods (Exposure Control, the Netherlands). Result: CP was detected in 24 urine samples of 9 nurses. The total amount of CP excreted ranged from 5.4 to 44.2 ng/24-hours. The mean amount of CP excreted per nurse was 16.8 ng/24-hours. No significant difference was observed between the hospital I and II. FBAL was not detected in any of the urine samples. CP was detected in the urine of the nurses prior to their work shift. Moreover, CP was detected in the urine of the nurses who were not caring for patients in the intravenous drip of CP. There was most what answered that there was hair loss in health condition. Conclusion: The results reveal that almost all nurses were exposed to cyclophosphamide. Even when the patient in the intravenous drip of CP was not being cared for, it became clear that exposure by CP existed. As the route of the exposure to CP, the inhalation or dermal absorption can be considered. To ensure minimum exposed to antineoplastic drugs, suitable personal protective equipment needs to be equipped also of various scenes of caring for chemotherapy patients. Moreover, it is important to keep an eye on the monitoring of the antineoplastic drug in the environment and a nurse's health condition periodically going forward.