Objective: Presenteeism is considered to be not only a work-related stressor but also a factor involved in the development of workaholism and error proneness, which is often described as careless. Additionally, increasing health issues arising from aging suggest the possibility that presenteeism in middle-aged nurses is different than that in young ones. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify and tease apart factors involved in presenteeism among young and middle-aged nurses. Methods: An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 2,006 nurses working at 10 hospitals. In total, 761 nurses aged <40 years and 536 nurses aged ≥40 years were enrolled in this study. Work Impairment Scores (WIS) on the Japanese version of the Stanford Presenteeism Scale were measured for presenteeism. Job stressors, workaholism, and error proneness were measured for related factors. Multiple regression analysis was conducted after determining the WIS as the dependent variable and related factors as independent variables. Results: Overall, 70.8% of the young nurses reported health problems compared to 82.5% of the middle-aged nurses. However, WIS in young nurses was significantly higher than that in middle-aged ones (p < 0.001). WIS in young nurses showed a significant relationship with the degree of stressors, "difficulty of work" (β = 0.28, p < 0.001) and tendency to "work excessively" (β = 0.18, p < 0.001), which is a subscale of workaholism, error proneness of "action slips" (β = 0.14, p < 0.01) and "cognitive narrowing" (β = 0.11, p < 0.05). Conversely, WIS in middle-aged nurses showed a significant relationship with "cognitive narrowing" (β = 0.29, p < 0.001) and to "work excessively" (β = 0.17, p < 0.001), the degree of stressors on "difficulty of work" (β = 0.12, p < 0.05) and "lack of communication" (β = 0.13, p < 0.01). Conclusion: It was clarified that the increased health problems of middle-aged nurses does not necessarily lower their working capacity. Also, compared to young nurses, the degree of failing tendency, rather than the degree of job stressors, was more related to presenteeism for middle-aged nurses. It can be considered that middle-aged nurses simply realize that their working ability is hindered because of incidents resulting from attention narrowing. As fatigue and state of tension tend to cause narrowing of attention, it may be necessary to reduce such risks and adjust work environments so mistakes can be avoided.