In 1957, Howard Warrender published an influential and controversial work, The Political Philosopy of Hobbes, which gives so-called “religionist interpretation” of Hobbes's “natural law” theory. We critically evaluate Warrender's claim that God plays an essential role in the foundation of Hobbes's rational/natural law theory. This examination mainly deals with chapter 31 of Leviathan, “of the Kingdom of God by Nature”, on which Warrender's claim is based. After having examined the Hobbesian topic in the chapter, “natural punishments”, we conclude that Warrender's “religionist interpretation” is unsustainable.
Innately free and equal people build a free and equal civil society, though the society is the exclusive state of autonomous proprietors, especially landowners. However there is no contradiction. Because Locke offers two ways, inland improvement and outward colonization. In the former, although the poor can become managing proprietors by borrowing capital, everyone can not do so. Therefore colonizing America in its natural state is very important in Locke's theory of civil society of mono autonomous proprietors.
Is it possible to regard epistemology as a discipline which is quite independent of social philosophy? This paper focuses on Hume and his precursors, and endeavours to show whether there is any correlation between their empirical theory of knowledge and their social philosophy. Regarding the theorists dealt with in this paper, I would like to submit that the empirical method which may lead to total scepticism about objective knowledge and morality has at least some psychological connection with the idea of the acceptance of existing social institutions.
This paper attempts to clarify the concept of “the party of humankind” by analysis of the three topics in Hume's moral philosophy. The first is the principle of sympathy and the identity as it regards the passions. The second is the general points of view and the proper point of view. The third is the speculative artifice and the philosophy of common life I intend to suggest that Hume causally explains why we can have and develop the sentiments of humanity and that his defence of morality deeply depends upon his study of human understanding and passions.
Harriet Taylor and J. S. Mill, in the late 1840's and early 1850's, just before and after their marriage, wrote a series of articles on injustice and cruelty, revealing their growing concern over the effects of male violence and authority sanctioned by law. Their intention was to drive legislators and judges to regard violence as a serious crime deserving severe punishment. My analytical approaches are based upon thoughts in their “joint productions”; sometimes Mill comments, “Very little of this article was mine”. This paper aims to shed light on Harriet Taylor's ideas and the formative process of Mill's thoughts.