John Locke's argument of free-will problem in his An Essay Concernig Human Understanding has been seen to be sort of problematic. It is “a power to suspend the execution of any of its desires” and determinism of will that form the core of the problem. In this paper, I'm trying to resolve this problem from the libertarian point of view. There are some approaches to interpret Locke as libertarian, but they has further problems in terms of both interpretation and theory themselves. This paper gives further arguments to support their approaches and sets forth coherent interpretation of Locke's theory of freedom.
In his ‘Evolution and Ethics’ T. H. Huxley formulates the antagonism between nature and art. In this formulation, human beings and society have in themselves both natural and artificial aspects, to which he attaches ambiguous values. This view is closely connected with his political argument in ‘The Struggle for Existence in Human Society’, which seeks the middle course between ‘Anarchic Individualism’ and ‘Regimental Socialism’. In his formulation, the antagonism between individualism and socialism is parallel to that between nature and art. It can be argued, therefore, that his middle-of-the-road politics is based on his ambiguous attitudes to nature and art.
William James's concept “stream of thought” has mainly two backgrounds to build up its original style. The first is the difference between material state and inner state of vital phenomena, and the second is the impossibility to associate plural ideas without transcendental subject. The first is influenced by an issue in the theory of evolution. That is a question, on which point in evolution the inner state of life has emerged. This is the principal impossibility which is contrary to the emergence of vital phenomena as material body. For this problem James reexamines “mind-stuff theory”, and he approves its one aspect which assumes inner state from the beginning of evolution, but rejects its another aspect which affirms association. The problem of the latter aspect has something to do with the second background. To overcome this problem, James attained to “stream” after examining “several another hypotheses”.