It is widely agreed that the British empiricism originated with John Locke (1632-1704). As is well known among the scholars, although Locke developed his matured empirical epistemology in his philosophical masterpiece An Essay concerning Human Understanding (1690), the main tenets of his epistemology had already been in shape in the Draft A and Draft B of the Essay both written in 1671. Essays on the Law of Nature (1663-4) is also known to have been the starting point of his empirical epistemology. This paper examines these two origins of the Essay and concludes that his debt to the experimental philosophy was decisive for the orientation of the British empiricism.
British conceptions of empire were shaped by political arguments on liberty. This study revisits on Edmund Burke's empire thought in the light of the dilemma of liberty and empire, demonstrating that he struggled to reconcile liberty with empire. And the paper tries to offer his original contribution to history of discourse on empire. Burke regarded British Empire's problems after the Seven Years' War as unknown, and could not rely on the example of Roman, Greek, or even British colonies. In order to find the reason, the paper pays attention to Burke's perception that political sphere in empire of the seas is too vast for power and authority of imperial government to exercise enough. And the perception brought him distinction between state and empire, and plan of colonial self-government.
Since Locke presented Molynuexʼs Problem, many debates concerning it have been generated. Although there have been many arguments concerning it, arguments have been limited in problems of perception. In this paper, I tried to go beyond this limit, by carefully reading Berkeleyʼs arguments concerning Molynuexʼs Problem. How did Berkeley analyze Molyneuxʼs Problem? Many commentators have pointed out a huge influence by William Molynuex on Berkeleyʼs arguments on Molyneux Men (who is born blind). But, Berkeley also thought about the other Molyneux Man in the context of Christianity. This contextual fact shows that Berkeley thought arguments concerning Molyneuxʼs Problem should not be limited in the problem of perception.