The sensory irritation such as biting appears after application of cosmetics. This irritation is the passing stimulation without inflammation. We investigated many cosmetic materials, and made researches on the substance and mechanism of this stimulation. In the results, the sensitivity among the population showed the individual differences. The intensity of irritation is directly related to the number of molecules, is effected by temperature and viscosity of vehicles. We considered that the causative substances must have the high affinity to the skin. This high affinity is dependent on suitable molecular size, polarity, structure and electronic property of the molecule. The detail of this stimulation was reported.
The psychophysiological mechanism underlying the efficacy of esthetic facial massage was investigated in two related experiments using subjective, behavioral, and physiological indexes. In the first experiment, 24 healthy female volunteers ranging in age from 19-21 were assigned to an esthetic massage group (ES) or to a control group (CON) in a mixed design. Each subject was evaluated three times over an interval of several days. Subjects in Es showed significant changes (p<0.05) on the subjective index n terms of reduced tension and increased comfortableness, as assessed on the TAD-ACL (Tohoku Activation-Deactivation Adjective Checklist). Significant sympathetic system changes (p<0.05) were also observed on the physiological index with a slowing of heart beat after facial massage in the third session. In the second experiment, 24 naive subjects ranging in age from 19-21 were assigned to 3 equal groups: Es, an autogenic training group (AUT), and CON. Each subject was evaluated 3 times over an interval of several days. Prior to the experiment, subjects were habituated in a single training session. When ES was compared with AUT (Autogenic training is a wellknown relaxation method), significant differences (p<0.05) similar to those in the first experiment were observed on the subjective index in terms of reduced tension and increased comfortableness. The physiological index showed changes in EEG which resembled the stage of suppressed waves seen in the early stage of drowsiness in ES, and which decreased in coherence. These results indicate that esthetic facial massage produces a unique deactivation effect. These two experiments evaluated the psychophysiological efficacy of esthetic facial massage. Facial massage was shown to reduce arousal level in both the autonomic and central nervous systems and to produce a relaxed mental state which subjects described as “comfortableness”.
Antimicrobial effect of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) on 5 species of bacteria, 3 species of yeasts and one species of true fungi was investigated in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and the residual amount of the two compounds in nutrient broth and YM broth was determined. P. fluorescens, P. aeruginosa, E. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli were inoculated to nutrient broth followed by addition of NaClO2 or NaClO, and incubated for 14 days at 25°C. Then it was proved that the inhibitory effect of NaClO2 is stronger than that of NaClO. On the contrary, when C. lipolytica, Tr. cutaneum and A. niger were inoculated to YM broth, antimicrobial effect of NaClO2 was weaker than that of NaClO. As a result of the determination of residual amout of NaClO2 and NaClO in the brothes, it became clear that NaClO degraded very quickly, but NaClO2 remained for 7 days. It seems that one of the reasons for higher antimicrobial effect of NaClO2 than that of NaClO is owing to its stability in the brothes.
Fibroblast like cells (swiss 3T3 cells) treated by trypsin under various conditions were cultured within collagen gel. Contraction of collagen gel was more retarded with cells treated as increasing concentration of trypsin or as increasing time of trypsin treatment. Number of spherical cells within collagen gel observed by phase-contrast micrography 6hr after culture increased with increasing concentration of trypsin or time of trypsin treatment, while bipolar cells decreased. These results suggest that cell surface contains a membrane protein which is trypsin-sensitive and which interacts with collagen, ultimately contributing to contraction of collagen gel. Correlation between contraction of collagen gel and morphological change of cells might be realized by the membrane protein assumed to exist. It seems that the delay of contraction by trypsin treatment of cells is related to a prolonged period during which the shape of cells changes from sphere to bipolar.
Octadecyl silyl (ODS-) silicagels, used widely as stationary phase in reversed phase liquid chromatography, possess problems such as stability in alkaline mobile phase, and peak tailing of basic substances due to silanol groups (Si-OH) on the silicagel surface. To overcome such problems, a reversed packing material differing fundamentally from the conventional ODS-silicagels was developed, by introducing Octadecyl groups into polymer coated silicagels. Structural elucidation by high resolution Solid-NMR, separation behaviors and alkaline stability are descussed. Furthermore, this packing material was used to examine the separation behaviors of glycosides, Mono-ammonium Glycyrrhizinate and Swertiamarin formulated in cosmetics were quantified. The newly developed packing materials showed separation behaviors basically resembling that of conventional ODS-silicagels. Since the packing material itself has become less polar, highly polar glycosides were found to elute more quickly with sharp separation. As regards to alkaline stability, no peak deterioration was observed after 300 hours of consecutive runs under pH=10.