Three types of influenza viruses: A/NWS(H1N1), A/Kumamoto/37/79(H1N1) and A/Bangkok/1/79(H3N2) were examined for mice infected by inoculating through the nose. The A/Kumamoto strain failed to infect the mice. The mice showed neither a decrease in weight nor produced the virus antibody. On the other hand, the A/Bangkok and A/NWS strains caused a decrease in weight and the growth of virus in the organs. Especially, the A/NWS strain showed a strong virulence accompanied by a rapid decrease in weight with a high mortality rate. Ten monoclonal variants derived from the A/NWS strain were investigated by inoculating through the brain of the mice. Totally, 39(63%) of 62 mice were survived for more than 10 days after the brain inoculation. By contrast, the wild NWS strain killed all of 12 mice inoculated through the brain. The mice that survived in spite of the variant inoculation had a strong infective defense immunity and was able to withstand the wild NWS strain. Therefore, such a variant may be possile to use as an influenza vaccine.
Junior high-school students (13-15 years old; male 315, female 304) were asked to answer a questionnaire on costipation tendency and consideration on food habits. 1. A total of 6% of the males and 14% of the females were found to suffer from constipation. Both male (64%) and female (73%) students tended to consider that constipation affects their health. When asked about bowel movements, 57% of the males and 51% of the females answered that they should have them every day. Students often experienced abdominal distention and pains (27% and 58%, respectively). The time for bowel movement was between when the students arose to after he/she had had breakfast for 59% of the males and 46% of the females. 2. When questioned about food habits, 49% of the males and 46% of the females considered their food intake sufficient to maintain their health. However, only 18% of the males and females said that they knew about their food intake requirements.
Salmonella typhimurium isolates from river water, meat and humans in Osaka City were biotyped according to the scheme of Duguid et al. (J. Med. Microbiol., 8, 149-166 (1975)). A total of 134 strains were classified into 31 biotypes. Biogroup 1 was the most predominant type not only among the strains from humans (65%) but also among the strains from meat (39%) and river water (64%). Of the biogroup 1 isolates (81 strains), 78% (63 strains) were allotted into id or 1df. The distriubution of biotypes found among strains from river water correlated well with that among the isolates from humans. Monitoring of river water and biotyping of the isolates are useful to assume the predominant type in humans.
Erythrocyte deformability by the use of microfilter method was studied in 17 male workers from a scrap lead refinery and in 13 controls working in a university. As a result, erythrocyte deformability showed a significant decrease in the lead-exposed group compared with the controls.