On January 1, 1948 (the 23rd year of Showa) the Food Sanitation Law was put into operation and 22 coloring matters were listed as food additives in the Food Sanitation Law Enforcement Regulation. Since then 3 new coloring matters have been approved and 14 have been delisted. The specifications and use restrictions have been revised many times. The latest specifications and use restrictions are described in the Sixth Edition of the Japanese Standards for Food Additives published in 1992. After enforcement of the Food Sanitation Law, the government had a legal basis toprohibit the use of unapproved coloring matters. However some food processors continued using unapproved coloring matters for about ten years. Government agencies, the food industry and the various food additive industries worked together to eliminate the use of unapproved coloring matters. According to a recent survey, foodstuffs colored with unapproved coloring matters have been driven almost completely out of the Japanese market.
Hazardous organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DOP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were identified in sewage sludge by GC/MS analysis using sample preparation by liquid-liquid partition and solid-phase extraction. It was found that the solid-phase extraction was more effective, because of its simplicity, than the liquid-liquid partition. From the analytical results, more PAHs were found in sludge from a combined sewage system plant than from a separate sewage system plant. DOP was present in abundance in both sludges.
Although Albizzia falcataria and Cryptomeria japonica were not mutually distinguishable in shape under an optical microscope, only the powder of the former exhibited intense eye irritation in rabbits. Methanol extract of the powder of Albizzia falcataria also exhibited eye irritation, whereas no eye irritation was observed with its extract residue. The methanol extract was also intensely hemolytic, but showed no significant effects in a single oral administration to mice and in a mutagenecity test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100.