The sterilizing effects of laundry detergent and oxygen and chlorine bleach on fungal spores were examined. Bleach did not appreciably kill spores of common fungi such as Penicillium and Cladosporium species in water at 25°C, but, increase in water temperature accelerated the sterilizing effect of bleach. Hot water, higher than 30°C, with bleach was effective for killing fungal spores. Bleach is more effective than detergent for washing cloth samples contaminated with the species of Cladosporium used in 25°C water, although fungal spores are not effectively killed. Fungal mycelia are more sensitive to bleach than their spores, so mycelia on fabric are bleached more easily than their spores.
To ascertain the actual state of awareness and activities toward waste and environmental problems among women's college students, we sent out a questionnaire to 175 students in 1994 and 143 in 1998. Many students had a sense of impending crisis about environmental problems but only a few students were interested in and paid attention to them. Although there were some changes over four years, there was a tendency for the situation to improve with changes in social conditions. The students who were interested in issues familiar to them rather than global ones acted proactively, especially those students with a positive attitude toward recycling demonstrated initiative and took action. In most households, the mother of a family was primarily responsible for waste management and recycling. This suggests that it is important that family members, especially males, change their attitudes toward and cooperate in the waste management at home. A home may be the most suitable place for practical education to improve waste problems and it is clear that the attitude of the mother and her leadership play an important role. Therefore, it can be claimed that environmental education among women's college students is important.
The phenomenon of a change in Japanese eating habits is evident from recent reports on nutrition. The excess of fat-energy ratio over 25%, the excess of daily sodium chloride intake over 10g, and the deficiency of dietary fiber intake are few of many obstacles to be overcome in improving national health. These dietary lifestyles are considered as reasons for the increase of lifestyle-related diseases among Japanese. Diabetes, one of such lifestyle-related disease, has reached pandemic proportions among the population and indications are that the number of cases will continue to rise. In young ages, generally, they also have the intake problems due to unbalanced nutrition and unusual taste etc. Particularly, the students (only female), who are 18-29 years old, desire to become slender and, therefore, take less nutrients than levels of the nutrient dietary allowance. Although the students in the dietitian training facility, who have the knowledge of foods, nutrition and dietetics, understand that a dietitian and a national registered dietitian should manage the public nutrition, some of them can't manage their self-nutrition. They will undergo pregnancy in future and therefore, should take care of their health and should not be too slim. In this study, we obtained information about dietary intake (nutrients and food intake) of the female students and examined the clinical examination during 1989 to 2001 (but can not measured clinical examination in 1989).