An alien species is defined as a species, subspecies or lower taxon occurring in a country or region outside that of its historically known range due to introduction by humans. Introduction can be either direct, as in the case of socio-economically valuable species that are imported, or indirect, as in the case of those that arrive accidentally together with imported goods and human immigrants. The term “invasive species” is given to alien species that, through predation, competitive substitution and gene contamination, adversely affect native biodiversity, the environment, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human safety in the countries or regions to which they have newly immigrated. In Japan, the Invasive Alien Species Act was promulgated as of June 2, 2004, and went into force as of June 1, 2005. This article describes, first, factors affecting immigration, settlement and expansion of alien species, second, the present situation of recognized alien species in Japan and, third, countermeasures to be taken against alien species including invasive ones.
Illegal dumping of solid waste has become one the most urgent issues faced in the administration of solid waste management. In this paper, changes in the number of arrests for violation of environmental laws since 1972 and the increasing rate of cases of illegal dumping are shown. The national government has taken various measures to curb illegal dumping, especially of industrial solid waste. The changes in the Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law concerning the measures for illegal dumping are reviewed.
A simple and rapid screening method using LC/MS/MS for the multi-residue analysis of residual antibiotics and synthetic antibacterials in muscle was developed. The drugs (25 antibiotics, 15 synthetic antibacterials and 1 anthelminthic) were extracted from bovine Longissimus dorsi (L. dorsi), porcine L. dorsi and chicken Pectralis major with McIlvaine buffer (pH 7.0), and cleaned-up on a solid-phase extraction cartridge (OASIS HLB, Waters). The eluate was analyzed by liquid chromatography with gradient elution on a C18 column and detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The detection limits were under 1ng/g. The recoveries of the 41 drugs were in the range of 48-92%.